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11.4 Meiosis. Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Chromosome Number Chromosomes carry genes. Genes are located in specific positions on chromosomes.

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Presentation on theme: "11.4 Meiosis. Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Chromosome Number Chromosomes carry genes. Genes are located in specific positions on chromosomes."— Presentation transcript:

1 11.4 Meiosis

2 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Chromosome Number Chromosomes carry genes. Genes are located in specific positions on chromosomes.

3 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Diploid Cells Fruit flies have eight chromosomes. Four come from the father, four come from the mother. Homologous pair – The two sets of chromosomes that match. Always one from each parent

4 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Diploid Cells Diploid cell – Cell containing both sets of homologous chromosomes. Represented by 2N. For the fruit fly, the diploid number is 8, which can be written as 2N = 8 All cells are diploid except the sperm and egg.

5 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Haploid Cells Haploid (N) - cells containing a single set of chromosomes, and therefore a single set of genes. Gametes (sperm and egg) are haploid. Fruit flies are 2N with 8 chromosomes. How many chromosomes do the gametes have? Four

6 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Phases of Meiosis Meiosis - process in which the number of chromosomes in a diploid cell is cut in half. Made up of meiosis I and meiosis II. By the end of meiosis II, the diploid cell becomes four haploid cells. Interphase Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Cytokinesis Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Cytokinesis Meiosis I Meiosis II

7 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Chromosomes replicate Interphase Meiosis I - Prophase I Homologous chromosomes pair up. Form tetrads – four chromatids Go through crossing-over. Example cell: 2N (4 chromosomes) 

8 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Prophase I – Crossing-Over First, homologous chromosomes cross over one another. Crossed sections of the chromatids are exchanged. Important because it produces new combinations of alleles (genes).

9 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Metaphase I Homologous chromosomes line up across the middle of the cell. Anaphase I Homologous chromosomes are pulled apart and move towards opposite ends of the cell.

10 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Telophase I Nuclear membrane reforms around each cluster of chromosomes. Cytokinesis Cells splits, forming two new cells.

11 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Meiosis I Concludes Results in two haploid (N) daughter cells Each has 2 chromosomes, 4 chromatids. Each cell has different chromosomes than when it started because of crossing-over.

12 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Meiosis II After meiosis I comes meiosis II. No interphase The final four phases of meiosis II are similar to those in meiosis I. However, the result is four haploid daughter cells.

13 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Prophase II Chromosomes become visible. No tetrads Metaphase II Chromosomes line up in the middle of each cell.

14 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Anaphase II Paired chromatids separate. Telophase II, and Cytokinesis Splits into four haploid (N) daughter cells Each has 2 chromosomes, 2 chromatids.

15 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Interphase Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Cytokinesis Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Cytokinesis Meiosis I Meiosis II 2 cells 2 chromosomes 4 chromatids 4 cells 2 chromosomes 2 chromatids

16 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Gametes to Zygotes The haploid cells produced by meiosis II are gametes. In males, gametes are called sperm. In females, gametes are called eggs.

17 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Gametes to Zygotes Fertilization — the fusion of the male and female gametes Makes a zygote. The zygote undergoes mitosis and eventually forms a new organism.

18 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Comparing Meiosis and Mitosis MitosisMeiosis One divisionTwo divisions Daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as first cell Daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes as first cell Results in two genetically identical diploid cells Results in four genetically different haploid cells

19 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis

20 Meiosis Meiosis I Meiosis II 23

21 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Gene Linkage and Gene Maps How can two alleles from different genes be inherited together? Alleles from different genes tend to be inherited together when those genes are located on the same chromosome.

22 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Gene Linkage A scientist used a fly with reddish-orange eyes and miniature wings in a series of test crosses. His results showed that the genes for those two traits were almost always inherited together.

23 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Gene Linkage Findings led to two conclusions: First, each chromosome has groups of linked genes. Second, it is the chromosomes that assort independently, not individual genes. Alleles of different genes tend to be inherited together when those genes are located on the same chromosome.

24 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Gene Mapping Sturtevant wondered could gene linkage be a clue to the genes’ locations? Sturtevant reasoned if two genes are close together, then crossovers between them should be rare. If two genes are far apart, then crossovers between them should be common.

25 Lesson Overview Lesson OverviewMeiosis Gene Mapping Used the frequency of cross-overs between genes to determine their distances from each other. Method still used today.


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