Presentation on theme: "Sexual reproduction How many chromosomes do we have in body cells?"— Presentation transcript:
1Sexual reproductionHow many chromosomes do we have in body cells?How many chromosomes do we have in sex cells?If your parents have 46 chromosomes in their cells, do you have 92 chromosomes in your cells? Why?
2ReviewHereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell.An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes, and a single gene can influence more than one trait.A human cell contains many thousands of different genes in its nucleus.Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from each “parent”When an organism produces its own gametes, those two sets of genes must be separated from each other so that each gamete contains just one set of genes.
3Diploid cellsChromosomes come from both the male parent and female parentHomologous: each of the chromosomes coming from one parent have corresponding chromosomes from the other parentDiploid: a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes = “two sets” (2N)Diploid cells contain two complete sets of chromosomes and two complete sets of genesHuman somatic (body) cells have 46 chromosomes or 23 homologous pairs
4Haploid cellsHaploid: contain only one set of chromosomes and one set of genes = “one set” (N)Gametes of sexually reproducing organisms are haploid containing one complete sets of chromosomes and one complete sets of genesHuman gametes (sex cells) have23 chromosomesSperm (23) + Egg (23) = Zygote (46)How are haploid gameteproduced from diploid cells?
5GametogenisisGametogenesis is the process in which GAMETES are produced.It involves MEIOTIC cell division and cell maturation.This process occurs in specialized organs called GONADS.Male gonads are called TESTES perform spermatogenesisFemale gonads are called OVARIES perform oogenesis
6If gametes were diploid cells, the chromosome number would double with each generation. Zygote
7Because of MEIOSIS this doubling does not occur and the ZYGOTE (fertilized egg) has the same number of chromosomes as the parent. HOW DOES THIS OCCUR ?
8MeiosisThe process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
9Meiosis Meiosis consists of 2 phases: Meiosis I Meiosis II To begin, you have one diploid cellIn the end, you have four haploid cells
10Meiosis I Cells begin to divide in a way that looks similar to mitosis Each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome to form a tetrad – there are 4 chromatids in a tetradThe homologous pairs may exchange portions of their chromatids in a process called crossing-over which results in the exchange of alleles between homologous chromosomes and produces new combinations of alleles
11Meiosis I Homologous chromosomes separate and two new cells are formed Each new cell has equal numbers of chromatids but neither have the same complete set of chromosomes or alleles as each other or the original diploid cell
12Figure 11-15 Meiosis Meiosis I Interphase I Section 11-4 Prophase I Metaphase IAnaphase ICells undergo a round of DNA replication, forming duplicate Chromosomes.Each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome to form a tetrad.Spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes.The fibers pull the homologous chromosomes toward the opposite ends of the cell.Go to Section:
13Meiosis II The two cells enter a second meiotic division Neither cell goes through chromosomal replication, so each chromosome has 2 chromatidsPairs of chromatids separateEach daughter cell produced receives equal amounts of chromatidsThe four daughter cells contain haploid (N) chromosomes
14Figure 11-17 Meiosis II Meiosis II Section 11-4 Prophase II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.Prophase IIMetaphase IIAnaphase IITelophase IIThe chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.Go to Section:
15Gamete formation Male: sperm (4 equal sized gametes produced) Female: egg/polar bodies (1 egg cell produced which contains most of the cytoplasm, and 3 polar bodies which are usually not involved in reproduction)
18Mitosis vs. MeiosisMitosis – produces 2 genetically identical diploid cellsMeiosis – produces 4 genetically different haploid cells
19MITOSIS VS. MEIOSIS MITOSIS: THE PROCESS BY WHICH A DIPLOID CELL(2n) PRODUCES TWO DIPLOID (2n) CELLSINCLUDES ONE CELL DIVISIONASEXUAL REPRODUCTIONMEIOSIS:THE PROCESS BY WHICH A DIPLOID CELL (2n) PRODUCES FOUR HAPLOID (1n) CELLS (GAMETES)INCLUDES TWO CELL DIVISIONSSEXUAL REPRODUCTIONCompare mitosis and meiosis on the graphic organizer with your seat partner…
20We know that genes on different chromosomes are independently assorted… But what about genes on the same chromosome? Would they be inherited together?
21LinkageThomas Hunt Morgan – discovered that genes located on the same chromosome would generally be inherited together or “linked”Chromosomes can be thought of as groups of genes. The chromosomes can assort independently, but all the genes on that chromosomes will be linked!
22Importance of crossing-over However, crossing-over sometimes separates gene that are usually found on the same chromosome, so genes may not be linked together forever!Crossing-over is soooo important because it helps generate genetic diversity – new combinations of allele are constantly producedIncreasing the variability of a species increases the possibility that some individuals of that species will be better adapted than others to survive both short-term and long-term changes in the environment.
23Gene maps Show the relative locations of known genes on chromosomes Exact location on chromosomesChromosome 2
24Comparative Scale of a Gene Map Section 11-5Mapping of Earth’s FeaturesMapping of Cells, Chromosomes, and GenesCellEarthCountryChromosomeChromosome fragmentStateGeneCityPeopleNucleotide base pairsGo to Section: