Presentation on theme: "Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 12. 2 Early Ideas of Heredity Before the 20 th century, 2 concepts were the basis for ideas about heredity: -heredity."— Presentation transcript:
2 Early Ideas of Heredity Before the 20 th century, 2 concepts were the basis for ideas about heredity: -heredity occurs within species -traits are transmitted directly from parent to offspring This led to the belief that inheritance is a matter of blending traits from the parents.
3 Early Ideas of Heredity Botanists in the 18 th and 19 th centuries produced hybrid plants. When the hybrids were crossed with each other, some of the offspring resembled the original strains, rather than the hybrid strains. This evidence contradicted the idea that traits are directly passed from parent to offspring.
4 Why Mendel chose Pea? Gregor Mendel chose to study pea plants because: 1. other research showed that pea hybrids could be produced 2. many pea varieties were available 3. peas are small plants and easy to grow 4. peas can self-fertilize or be cross-fertilized
6 Mendel’s experimental design Mendel’s experimental method: 1. produce true-breeding strains for each trait he was studying 2. cross-fertilize true-breeding strains having alternate forms of a trait -perform reciprocal crosses as well 3. allow the hybrid offspring to self-fertilize and count the number of offspring showing each form of the trait
7 Monohybrid Crosses Monohybrid cross: a cross to study only 2 variations of a single trait Mendel produced true-breeding pea strains for 7 different traits -each trait had 2 alternate forms (variations) -Mendel cross-fertilized the 2 true-breeding strains for each trait
8 Monohybrid Crosses F 1 generation (1 st filial generation): offspring produced by crossing 2 true- breeding strains For every trait Mendel studied, all F 1 plants resembled only 1 parent -no plants with characteristics intermediate between the 2 parents were produced
9 Monohybrid Crosses F 1 generation: offspring resulting from a cross of true-breeding parents F 2 generation: offspring resulting from the self-fertilization of F 1 plants dominant: the form of each trait expressed in the F 1 plants recessive: the form of the trait not seen in the F 1 plants
10 Monohybrid Crosses F 2 plants exhibited both forms of the trait in a very specific pattern: ¾ plants with the dominant form ¼ plant with the recessive form The dominant to recessive ratio was 3 : 1. Mendel discovered the ratio is actually: 1 true-breeding dominant plant 2 not-true-breeding dominant plants 1 true-breeding recessive plant
11 Monohybrid Crosses gene: information for a trait passed from parent to offspring alleles: alternate forms of a gene homozygous: having 2 of the same allele heterozygous: having 2 different alleles
12 Monohybrid Crosses genotype: total set of alleles of an individual PP = homozygous dominant Pp = heterozygous pp = homozygous recessive phenotype: outward appearance of an individual
13 Monohybrid Crosses Principle of Segregation Two alleles for a gene segregate during gamete formation and are rejoined at random, one from each parent, during fertilization.
15 Monohybrid Crosses Some human traits are controlled by a single gene. -some of these exhibit dominant inheritance -some of these exhibit recessive inheritance Pedigree analysis is used to track inheritance patterns in families.
18 Dihybrid Crosses Dihybrid cross: examination of 2 separate traits in a single cross -for example: RR YY x rryy The F 1 generation of a dihybrid cross (RrYy) shows only the dominant phenotypes for each trait.
19 Dihybrid crosses The F 2 generation is produced by crossing members of the F 1 generation with each other or allowing self- fertilization of the F 1. -for example RrYy x RrYy The F 2 generation shows all four possible phenotypes in a set ratio: 9 : 3 : 3 : 1
20 Dihybrid Crosses Principle of Independent Assortment In a dihybrid cross, the alleles of each gene assort independently.
21 Probability – Predicting Results Rule of addition: the probability of 2 mutually exclusive events occurring simultaneously is the sum of their individual probabilities. When crossing Pp x Pp, the probability of producing Pp offspring is probability of obtaining Pp (1/4), PLUS probability of obtaining pP (1/4) ¼ + ¼ = ½
22 Probability – Predicting Results Rule of multiplication: the probability of 2 independent events occurring simultaneously is the PRODUCT of their individual probabilities. When crossing Rr Yy x RrYy, the probability of obtaining rr yy offspring is: probability of obtaining rr = ¼ probability of obtaining yy = ¼ probability of rr yy = ¼ x ¼ = 1/16
23 Testcross Testcross: a cross used to determine the genotype of an individual with dominant phenotype -cross the individual with unknown genotype (e.g. P_) with a homozygous recessive (pp) -the phenotypic ratios among offspring are different, depending on the genotype of the unknown parent
25 Extensions to Mendel Mendel’s model of inheritance assumes that: -each trait is controlled by a single gene -each gene has only 2 alleles -there is a clear dominant-recessive relationship between the alleles Most genes do not meet these criteria.
26 Extensions to Mendel Polygenic inheritance occurs when multiple genes are involved in controlling the phenotype of a trait. The phenotype is an accumulation of contributions by multiple genes. These traits show continuous variation and are referred to as quantitative traits. For example – human height
28 Extensions to Mendel Pleiotropy refers to an allele which has more than one effect on the phenotype. This can be seen in human diseases such as cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia. In these diseases, multiple symptoms can be traced back to one defective allele.
29 Extensions to Mendel Incomplete dominance: the heterozygote is intermediate in phenotype between the 2 homozygotes. Codominance: the heterozygote shows some aspect of the phenotypes of both homozygotes.
30 Extensions to Mendel The human ABO blood group system demonstrates: -multiple alleles: there are 3 alleles of the I gene (I A, I B, and i) -codominance: I A and I B are dominant to i but codominant to each other
31 Extensions to Mendel The expression of some genes can be influenced by the environment. for example: coat color in Himalayan rabbits and Siamese cats -an allele produces an enzyme that allows pigment production only at temperatures below 30 o C
32 Extensions to Mendel The products of some genes interact with each other and influence the phenotype of the individual. Epistasis: one gene can interfere with the expression of another gene
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