Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader
Chapter 11 Chapter 11 Mendelian Inheritance Mendelian Inheritance

2 Human Genetic Disorders
Outline Blending Inheritance Monohybrid Cross Law of Segregation Modern Genetics Genotype vs. Phenotype Punnett Square Dihybrid Cross Law of Independent Assortment Human Genetic Disorders

3 Gregor Mendel Austrian monk
Studied science and mathematics at University of Vienna Conducted breeding experiments with the garden pea Pisum sativum Carefully gathered and documented mathematical data from his experiments Formulated fundamental laws of heredity in early 1860s Had no knowledge of cells or chromosomes Did not have a microscope

4 Gregor Mendel

5 Fruit and Flower of the Garden Pea

6 Garden Pea Traits Studied by Mendel

7 Theories of inheritance in Mendel’s time:
Blending Inheritance Theories of inheritance in Mendel’s time: Based on blending: parents of contrasting appearance produce offspring of mixed appearance Mendel’s findings were in contrast with this He formulated the particulate theory of inheritance Inheritance involves reshuffling of genes from generation to generation

8 One-Trait Inheritance
Mendel performed cross-breeding experiments Used “true-breeding” (homozygous) plants Chose varieties that differed in only one trait (monohybrid cross) Performed reciprocal crosses Parental generation = P First filial generation offspring = F1 Second filial generation offspring = F2 Formulated the Law of Segregation

9 Mendel’s Monohybrid Crosses: An Example

10 Law of Segregation Each individual has a pair of factors (alleles) for each trait The factors (alleles) segregate (separate) during gamete (sperm & egg) formation Each gamete contains only one factor (allele) from each pair Fertilization gives the offspring two factors for each trait

11 Modern Genetics View Each trait in a pea plant is controlled by two alleles (alternate forms of a gene) Dominant allele (capital letter) masks the expression of the recessive allele (lower-case) Alleles occur on a homologous pair of chromosomes at a particular gene locus Homozygous = identical alleles Heterozygous = different alleles

12 Homologous Chromosomes

13 Genotype Versus Phenotype
Refers to the two alleles an individual has for a specific trait If identical, genotype is homozygous If different, genotype is heterozygous Phenotype Refers to the physical appearance of the individual

14 Table listing all possible genotypes resulting from a cross
Punnett Square Table listing all possible genotypes resulting from a cross All possible sperm genotypes are lined up on one side All possible egg genotypes are lined up on the other side Every possible zygote genotypes are placed within the squares

15 Punnett Square Showing Earlobe Inheritance Patterns

16 Monohybrid Testcross Individuals with recessive phenotype always have the homozygous recessive genotype However, Individuals with dominant phenotype have indeterminate genotype May be homozygous dominant, or heterozygous Test cross determines genotype of individual having dominant phenotype

17 One-Trait Test Cross Unknown is Heterozygous

18 One-Trait Test Cross Unknown is Homozygous Dominant

19 Two-Trait Inheritance
Dihybrid cross uses true-breeding plants differing in two traits Observed phenotypes among F2 plants Formulated Law of Independent Assortment The pair of factors for one trait segregate independently of the factors for other traits All possible combinations of factors can occur in the gametes

20 Two-Trait (Dihybrid) Cross

21 Two-Trait Test Cross

22 Human Genetic Disorders
Autosome - Any chromosome other than a sex chromosome Genetic disorders caused by genes on autosomes are called autosomal disorders Some genetic disorders are autosomal dominant An individual with AA has the disorder An individual with Aa has the disorder An individual with aa does NOT have disorder Other genetic disorders are autosomal recessive An individual with AA does NOT have disorder An individual with Aa does NOT have disorder, but is a carrier An individual with aa DOES have the disorder

23 Autosomal Recessive Pedigree Chart

24 Autosomal Dominant Pedigree Chart

25 Incomplete Dominance Heterozygote has phenotype intermediate between that of either homozygote Homozygous red has red phenotype Homozygous white has white phenotype Heterozygote has pink (intermediate) phenotype Phenotype reveals genotype without test cross

26 Incomplete Dominance

27 Multiple Allelic Traits
Some traits controlled by multiple alleles The gene exists in several allelic forms (but each individual only has two) ABO blood types The alleles: IA = A antigen on red cells, anti-B antibody in plasma IB = B antigen on red cells, anti-AB antibody in plasma I = Neither A nor B antigens, both antibodies Phenotype (Blood Type) Genotype A (actually AA or AO) IAIA or IAi B (actually BB or BO) IBIB or IBi AB IAIB O (actually OO) ii

28 Inheritance of Blood Type

29 Polygenic Inheritance
Occurs when a trait is governed by two or more genes having different alleles Each dominant allele has a quantitative effect on the phenotype; these effects are additive Result in continuous variation of phenotypes

30 Height in Human Beings

31 Frequency Distributions in Polygenic Inheritance

32 Terminology Pleiotropy
A gene that affects more than one characteristic of an individual Sickle-cell (incomplete dominance) Codominance More than one allele is fully expressed ABO blood type (multiple allelic traits) Epistasis A gene at one locus interferes with the expression of a gene at a different locus Human skin color (polygenic inheritance)

33 Environment and Phenotype: Himalayan Rabbits

34 Review assignment p.201 Reviewing the chapter (#1-11)
p.202 Testing Yourself (#1-17) DUE TUESDAY

Download ppt "Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google