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Equipping Your English Learners for Academic Success

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1 Equipping Your English Learners for Academic Success
Knowing your English Learners… Introduce self, give background, not expert, coming at it from perspective of teacher or principal (what would I want to know). Introduce team.

2 That’s Me I would consider myself a morning person.
August 2009 That’s Me I would consider myself a morning person. Getting up in the morning is difficult, especially on work days. I teach in the primary grades. I teach the upper grades. I am a secondary teacher. My role is that of administrator or teacher support. I have taught English Learners for many years. I have only been teaching English Learners for a short time. I want to know more about English learners so that I can better serve them in the classroom. Let’s find out about each of you. We’ll do that through an activity called That’s Me. I will say a statement. If that statement is true for you, stand up, throw your hands in the air and shout, That’s Me! Make sure there are a couple of statements that are true for your entire audience. Have participants introduce selves and give one sentence describing why they are there. Learning Objectives for the day (refer to chart) 2 2 2

3 Norms Be respectful of one another
August 2009 Norms Be respectful of one another Cell phones off or on vibrate Avoid side conversations (jot notes instead?) Ask “we” questions. Save “me” questions. Keep the focus on teaching and learning; that which is within our sphere of influence Be a learner - actively participate in readings, discussions and activities In order to accomplish our goals for the day, we have some norms. 3 3 3

4 Participation Processes
August 2009 Participation Processes Parking Lot questions will be addressed after breaks and at the end of day. During discussion time, please focus attention on the given task first, then discuss related topics of interest. At the signal, finish your sentence (but not your paragraph) and rejoin the large group. Post a parking lot somewhere in the room 4 4 4

5 Outcomes for the Day Answer the Questions:
August 2009 Outcomes for the Day Answer the Questions: Who are our English Learners? What does it take to learn a new language? How does knowing students proficiency level help with instruction? Read each outcome Refer to them on chart paper Note that at the end of the session we will revisit these outcomes 5 5 5

6 Grendy Perez Country of Origin: Guatemala Age: 17

7 Duy Tran Country of Origin: Vietnam Age: 10

8 Cesar Cervantes Country of Origin: United States Age: 9

9 Emilio Mujico Country of Origin: Mexico Age: 17

10 Who are my English Learners?
Think about the English learners in your class Choose 3 that stand out and write down their names Bring your 3 focus students to life for others in your group Background English use in the classroom and with peers Academic performance Use Talking Stick to share in groups of 3 – 4 Follow bullets to ID and share about the 3 focus students Will consider them as work through day personalize learning periodically by applying learning to 3 focus students

11 DEMOGRAPHICS Now that we have looked at a few students, let’s delve more deeply into the numbers and trends pertaining to EL’s in the U.S. 11

12 ELs Form a Large, Growing Population
KEY POINT: Of more than 9 million LM students, roughly 5.5 million are classified as Limited English Proficient. Point out the difference between “language minority” and “LEP” 12

13 ELs and General School Population Growth
DISCUSSION: Ask participants to look at the graph: “What do you notice about the ELL population growth? What do you notice about the growth of the general school population? KEY POINTS: ELLs comprise one of the fastest-growing groups among the school-aged population. The ELL population growth rate is about 170%; the general school population growth rate is just over 10%. 13

14 Fastest Growing EL Populations
Students who immigrated before kindergarten U.S.-born children of immigrants (native-born) 76% of ELLs in grades K-8 56% of ELLs in grades 9-12 (Batalova, Fix, and Murray, 2007) By 2015, second generation children of immigrants are expected to be 30% of the school-aged population. KEY POINTS: This slide shows the fastest-growing segments of the ELL population. Many ELLs with academic challenges have been enrolled in U.S. schools since kindergarten; however, their English proficiency continues to be limited. ELLs typically have good conversational English skills, but lack mastery of the academic language necessary for content learning. DISCUSSION: How many of you are surprised by these statistics? 14

15 Numbers of EL Students (U.S. Department of Education, NCELA, 2007)
KEY POINT: This map shows the distribution of the greatest numbers of students formally designated as LEP. DISCUSSION: Ask participants to locate their (our) state. Where do we fit? (U.S. Department of Education, NCELA, 2007) 15

16 Density of EL Populations
KEY POINTS: This map shows the greatest concentrations of LEP students by state. The earlier map simply showed numbers; this one compares numbers of LEP students to non-LEP students. DISCUSSION: What is the percentage density for our state? What implication might that figure have for our state’s educational system? (Take three or four answers from the group.) (U.S. Department of Education, NCELA, 2007) 16

17 Growth of EL Populations
SAY: Here we see where the greatest growth in numbers of LEP students has taken place. States that have not historically had large LEP populations, such as those in the Midwest and Southeast, are seeing the greatest growth in LEP student numbers. DISCUSSION: Where does our state fall in terms of growth? What are the implications of this growth for our state’s educational system? (U.S. Department of Education, NCELA, 2007) 17

18 The Most Common Languages of English Language Learners
KEY POINTS: More than 460 different home languages are represented nationally. Spanish, at 79%, is the most commonly spoken second language, followed by Vietnamese and Hmong (2%), and Cantonese and Korean (1%). All other languages make up about 15% of the total. The number of languages spoken in schools represents a challenge for state agencies in terms of assessment and instruction. Spanish is the most common language spoken by ELLs in the United States. ACTIVITY #1: Differences Among ELL Groups In preparation for the next slide, prompt the audience to name differences within the ELL population before showing the slide. SAY: Please turn to the person sitting next to you and share what you think are differences among ELL groups. Can we name a few? Now, let’s look at this list This activity should take no more than 3 minutes. 18

19 Differences Among ELs Native language(s)
Level of native language/literacy skills Level of English language/literacy skills Length of time family has lived in US Previous schooling experience Familiarity with school routines Content-area knowledge Parental education Share these differences with the audience and see if they are among the ones they had mentioned. 19

20 At School Entry Language Minority Learners Identification Monitoring
Slide courtesy of N. Lesaux and M. Kieffer, Harvard Graduate School of Education Identification Home survey Language proficiency tests Other input (e.g., teachers) Monitoring Language – Title III Achievement – Title I Language Minority Learners ELs (or LEP) IFEP Language Prof. Tests Language Minority children in school undergo a screening process through surveys, tests, and referrals. The results of LP tests would identify them as IFEP (Initially Fluent English Proficient) or LEP (Limited English Proficient), also called ELL (English Language Learner). Schools are held accountable for monitoring their progress in English language acquisition and achievement. IFEP = Initially Fluent English Proficient 20

21 Over Time Language Minority Learners RFEP ELs IFEP
Slide courtesy of N. Lesaux and M. Kieffer, Harvard Graduate School of Education RFEP = Reclassified Fluent English Proficient ELs (or LEP) RFEP Language Prof. Tests IFEP Language Minority Learners Over time and effective instruction, ELLs are re-classified as fluent English proficient. 21

22 Unique Learning Challenges
Develop content knowledge and skills defined by state standards while simultaneously acquiring a second (or third) language; Demonstrate their learning on an assessment in English KEY POINTS: Young ELLs must accomplish these tasks at a time when their first language is not fully developed. ELLs range in academic abilities: ELLs who struggle may range from not speaking English to having different stages of conversational vocabulary and mastery of academic language. Their varied abilities are challenged when they are required to master content while improving their English language proficiency. In addition, some ELLs may have had limited or no test-taking or assessment experiences in their first or second language. Not all ELLs struggle academically. Several factors, such as quality of instruction and opportunities to practice reading and speaking, contribute to some ELLs’ difficulties. 22

23 Performance Outcomes CA looks at academic performance on CST after ELs are reclassified as fluent English proficient. Although some reclassified ELs do well, many still struggle with: listening, speaking, reading, and writing that involves academic language access to content-area knowledge KEY POINT: States seldom monitor the progress of ELLs in English proficiency once they are reclassified as fluent. This lack of support as curricula and academic vocabulary become more challenging is a source of frustration for ELLs and may widen the academic achievement gap between ELLs and native speakers of English. 23

24 Enjoy a 10 minute break

25 The Demographic Imperative
“The population of children in immigrant families is growing faster than any other group of children in the U.S.” Use the strategy A/B Each Teach to read the article from Ed Leadership Read Demographic Imperative - A/B Each Teach 2 sections: Factors Influencing Achievement & Implementation Gap A/B Each Teach process: Partners designate one partner A and the other B Person A and B read one section of text After reading section, Partner A provides succinct summary statement – “Teach as if person never read it.” Same process for next section with partner B providing summary statement

26 Learning a new Language
Aspects of knowing a language Some myths and realities Need for acquisition and learning Highlight what is coming up and connect to what was learned prior to break

27 May Day… Begin by looking at a video clip to put the importance of learning a new language in perspective

28 What must be taught? Grammatical Forms Phonology Academic &
April 17 August 2009 Grammatical Forms Phonology Academic & Social Functions What must be taught? Rhythm & Cadence Cultural Contexts Syntax Vocabulary Offer a quick example of each aspect of language learning as it shows up on the Circle Map – around 5-7 minutes worth total. Formal and Informal Discourse Styles April 17 28 28 28

29 August 2009 Misconceptions… Young children learn second languages quickly and easily. Once a student is orally fluent, he or she is proficient. Children all learn a second language the same way. Students will learn English through exposure alone. Working in groups of four, assign one myth per person. Use article to find evidence to refute your myth. Explain the evidence to your group Be prepared to share in the larger group. Directions/Notes: McLaughlin (Professor emeritus, UC Santa Cruz); CAL article, here are some of the myths he lays out Note: we have added the fourth myth discussed to this slide. The reading pieces are quite short so keep reading time brief to stay on schedule. Comment - there are many advantages to learning a language at a young age, but it is not a simple or automatic process. 29 29 29

30 Tongue Tied Listen to Que dice? Que dice? Child Translate and the Power of Language. - ( This video and reading goes along with the story from Tongue tied)

31 Enjoy an hour for lunch

32 Looking At Our English Learners

33 Proficiency Levels Beginning Early Intermediate Intermediate
Early Advanced Advanced In the story of Goldilocks Grandma? Grandma looked funny. I was scared. Grandma looked bigger than before. So I asked, “Do you feel OK?” At first I didn’t think it could be Grandma because she had long, furry, pointy ears! It should have been obvious that it was the wolf in my grandmother’s bed when I saw the facial hair.

34 Common English Learner Profiles
Recent arrivals to U.S. - new to English Long-term English learners Strong literacy in home language Strong English language and literacy, some gaps Limited literacy in home language Low literacy, seemingly strong oral English, many gaps 34 34

35 In Depth Look.. If this student entered your class today, what would you know about: his/her background support needed for his/her learning Note your assigned proficiency level/profile. Create a graphic representation to bring this student to life for the group. Be prepared to share. Beginning – New arrival with limited school background, low socioecomomic status EI – New arrival with solid school background, rural environment Int – Long-term resident, older student EA – older student, long-term resident A – low socioeconomic status, rural enviornment

36 My focus students Considering the students you identified this morning, what would you say was their proficiency level and profile and why. Use the frames below. Think: My student, ______, fits ______ profile because _____________________. He/She would probably fall within the ______ proficiency level because__________. Pair (A-B): Tell about your student and listen to your partner describe his or her student Share: With the rest of your table

37 Assessing English Proficiency
Understanding the purpose of the CELDT and the information it provides The inherent relationship between language and knowledge represents a challenge in the development of suitable language proficiency and content-area knowledge assessments for ELLs.

38 Assessment Challenges
Assessments of content-area knowledge and skills are also inherently tests of language proficiency. Test demands (CST, end of unit test, etc.) require EL’s to focus on language and therefore restricts their ability to attend to the content. Understanding students proficiency levels allows you to teach the language necessary for students to successfully demonstrate content knowledge KEY POINTS: Assessments of content-area knowledge and skills are also inherently tests of language proficiency. This is a challenge to a test’s content validity. ELLs are likely to be disadvantaged when taking tests in a language in which they are not fully proficient. Scores may reflect ELLs’ language abilities but not necessarily their content-area competence. ELLs use significantly more cognitive resources in processing the language of English assessments than do their monolingual peers. As a result, fewer cognitive resources are available to ELLs to attend to the content being tested. While there may be gaps between ELLs and non-ELLs in content knowledge, the size of these gaps is affected by the test’s language demands. Some ELLs have not had the academic opportunity to learn a subject due to lack of instruction; in such cases assessment by test would not be a fair evaluation. 38

39 Components of Language Proficiency
Oral (listening and speaking) skills Written (reading and writing) skills Academic and non-academic language KEY POINTS: Students considered fully proficient are able to communicate effectively and understand the meaning that others are trying to relay. Proficiency in a language means the ability to communicate effectively or to understand thoughts or ideas through the language's grammatical system and its vocabulary, using its sounds or written symbols. Language proficiency comprises oral (listening and speaking) and written (reading and writing) ability as well as facility in both academic and non-academic language. 39

40 Purpose of Language Proficiency Tests for ELs
To determine placement in language programs To monitor students’ progress while in these programs To guide decisions about when students should exit the programs (August & Hakuta, 1997) KEY POINTS: State education agencies must select or design appropriate tools to measure ELLs’ development, their acquisition of English language proficiency, and their content-area knowledge and skills. Under current law, states must now align their language proficiency standards to their content-area standards and achievement targets. 40

41 CELDT Parent Report Sheet
“This is what you are used to seeing but we need to know what those bars really represent and what stud being asked to do.” Table Talk: In what ways have you used this report? Walk participants through questions: What do these bars mean? What is the student being asked to do in order to score at the intermediate level? What does it mean if they continue to grow over time in the speaking area, but not in reading or in writing?

42 Reading Word Analysis: patterns and structures of words
Fluency and Vocabulary: Using a range of word meanings Reading Comprehension: facts, inferences, and critical analysis of fiction and non-fiction writing Show sample questions Ask: What students are expected to know How questions are asked Share out ahha’s

43 Listening Following Oral Directions: responding to instructions
Teacher Talk: understanding spoken information in academic settings Extended Listening Comprehension: answering questions about a short story Rhyming (K-2 only): producing words that rhyme with the words given How much explicit practice and instruction do we give them in this area? So difficult for ELs without visual support.

44 Speaking Oral Vocabulary: knowing how to use the names of nouns, actions Speech functions: using language to respond to specific tasks Choose and Give Reasons: stating a preference and giving two reasons 4 – Picture Narrative: telling a story based on a series of pictures

45 Writing Grammar and Structure: using Standard English grammatical structure and writing conventions Writing Sentences: constructing sentences on specific topics Writing Short Compositions: writing short compositions on specific topics Show sample questions Show rubric Practice scoring a few to see how accurate their expectations are.

46 How Rigorous is Your Instruction
Elbow Partner Now that you have seen what is expected of your students, how well do you believe you are preparing them for English proficiency? So… in writing, can they…. In reading, can they???

47 Reflecting… Keeping today’s learning and your focal students in mind, please note a couple: Recollections Insights Applications Be prepared to share out What was brought to light about your 3 EL focus students that you were not aware of before today?

48 Day 1 Evaluation Reflect on Day 1 Learning ( Day2: Supporting English Learners during Content Instruction

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