2The Gilded AgeTerm for the era ; coined by Mark Twain & Charles WarnerThey were sounding an alarm about the time period!Industrialization & urbanization changed the way Americans looked at themselves & society.Individualism- no matter your origins, you can rise as far as your talents & abilities will take you (Horatio Alger).Social Darwinism: Darwin’s theory applied to society; if you are wealthy—you are more talented or skilled.People who supported Social Darwinism= would have also supported “laissez-faire”.
3The Church Reacts to Darwinism The Churches in America did not like Darwin’s theory's about evolution. It contradicted the Biblical version of creation.Some minsters however, believed that God may have used evolution to create the world (Henry Ward Beecher- “Christian evolutionist”.
4**The Gospel of wealth Advocated by Andrew Carnegie The wealthy should engage in “philanthropy” & use their good fortune to make society better.Building schools, hospitals, public librariesOpposed giving “handouts” to the poor.
5Culture in the “Gilded Age” Realism- new movement in art & literature in the 1800’s.Painters & writers tried to depict the world “realistically”.Thomas Eakins- best known American realist painter.
6Realism in writingMark Twain (Samuel Clemmons)- Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; Tom Sawyer.Twain used the dialect of the region & humor.Wrote the true American novel- characters, setting, subject, language, & style= clearly American.
7Popular Culture in the gilded age Popular culture changed considerably in the late 1800’s.Standard of living improved for many people= more money= more entertainment & recreation.People separated their lives into : work, home, play.The Saloon- outnumbered grocery stores & meat markets in cities.Amusement Parks & Sports- entertainment for working class families & single adults.Coney Island (NY)ST PROFESSIONAL baseball team- Cincinnati Red Stockings ( st World Series PLAYED)Football— gained popularity by the late 1800’s1891- James Naismith –invented Basketball.3. Vaudeville & Ragtime– Vaudeville (a variety show); Ragtime- a type of music (Scott Joplin-King of Ragtime)
8Politics in Washington during the gilded age The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes ( )Reconstruction came to an end (Compromise of 1877)Tried to end the “Spoils System” patronage (giving jobs to loyal supporters).Republicans became divided on the issue.“Stalwarts”- Republicans who supported keeping the Spoils System.“Half-Breeds”- Republicans who wanted to reform the Spoils System.Election of 1880Republicans nominated- James Garfield (Half-Breed)Vice Presidential running mate- Chester Arthur (Stalwart)Garfield & Arthur won the election!One month later Garfield was assassinated by Charles Gateau (a would be office seeker).The public grows angry & demands an end to the Spoils System.
9Civil Service Reform1883- Congress passed the Pendleton Act ( law required some government jobs be filled by people who take & pass an exam)= start of the professional civil service.Only 10% of federal government job were made civil service positions in 1883—it went up over time.Significance--This means the end of the Spoils System
10Election of 1884 Democratic Party nominated– Grover Cleveland. governor of NY; Reformer with honesty.Republican Party nominated- James G. Blaine.Former Speaker of the House; reputed to have taken bribes.Republicans tired of corruption (“Mugwumps”) voted for the Democrat—Cleveland.Blaine needed the votes of Catholic voters to catch up (“Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion” comment by a supporter)Cleveland narrowly wins the election.1st Democrat elected president since 1856.
11Political Issues: Controlling corporations Many Americans were concerned about the power of large corporations, monopolies, and especially Railroad Companies.Large corporations could arrange to get “REBATES” & lower rates while farmers and others could not.Many states began to pass new laws to regulate railroad rates in their states.**1886- Wabash v. Illinois - the US Supreme Court ruled that states cannot regulate railroad rates (interstate commerce), only the Federal government could.** Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act.Created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)- federal agency to regulate railroad rates.1st law passed to regulate business for public good!Not very effective—relied on courts to enforce rules.
12Issues: TariffsDemocrats believed tariff rates should be reduced because they hurt people who bought manufactured goods.No need for high tariffs now—corporations now can compete internationally without help.Tariffs caused “trade wars”Congress deadlocked on the issueElection of 1888Republicans- Benjamin Harrison (got large money contributions from big businesses)Democrats- Grover Cleveland (campaigned for lower tariffs)** Harrison wins the election* Republicans control both houses
13Congress passes new legislation The McKinley Tariff (1890)1890- Congressman William McKinley- pushed a new tariff bill (cut rates on tobacco & sugar; raised rates on textiles etc.)Intended to protect US businesses from foreign competition & get Americans to buy American made products.The tariff caused prices of all products to rise=angered Americans.The Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)Meant to curb the power of large corporations & monopolies.Prohibited “any combination…or conspiracy, in restraint of commerce or trade…”Law had little impact to stop monopolies.Used mostly to stop labor unions!!
14PopulismPopulism- a movement to increase the political power of farmers.Problems of Farmers in the Gilded AgeNew farm tech = supply greater than demand= falling prices (deflation)High tariffs= harder for farmers to sale products overseas.Railroad Companies= give big “rebates” to large corporations.Banks= charge high interest rates for loans; farmers loose farms when they “mortgage” land to buy new tech.1873- Government stopped making “silver coins”= less money (“Crime of 73”)Solution to Farmer’s ProblemsAdjust the money supply= increase the types & amount of money circulating in economy (gold & silver coins, paper money- “Greenbacks”)Farmers began to organize!!
15Farmers organizeThe Grange (“Patrons of Husbandry”) (1867): 1st national farm organization.Founder—Oliver H. Kelley1st met just to discuss new farm techniques & to have socials.1873- US had severe recession= farm incomes fell= membership increased (800,000 to 1.5 million members by 1874)Grange calls for actionStates should regulate RR rates & warehouse rates.Created “Cooperatives” to try & increase farm prices.“Granger laws” passed by a few western states= set maximum rates charged by RR= struck down by the Wabash case.Grange ==not effective at changing things for farmers
16The Farmers organizeThe Farmer’s Alliance- had up to 3 million members by 1890.Strongly supported in the South & Great Plains.Supported “Exchanges” (very large Cooperatives)Ultimately– large cooperatives failed (lent too much money to farmers at low interest rates-never repaid, bankers & RR discriminated against them).Many famers began to push to create a NEW POLITICAL PARTYThe People’s Party (the Populists)1890Nominated candidates to Congress & state offices.Subtreasury Plan- called on government to set up warehouses to store crops= raise prices of farm products.lower tariffs , regulate banks & RR,
17People’s Party 1892- People’s party held it’s first convention The Omaha Platform (agenda for the party & candidates)Called for unlimited coinage of silverFederal ownership of RRGraduated income taxDirect election of Senators8 hour workday (hoped city workers would join)Immigration restrictions* Knights of Labor in decline & AFL steered clear of politics (urban workers failed to join the fight)
18Election 1896 “The Cross of Gold” The Campaign People’s Party—make the free coinage a silver the main issue!Democrats—nominate William Jennings Bryan (strong supporter of silver coinage)Republicans- nominated William McKinley (supported the Gold Standard)People’s Party decided to endorse Bryan.At the Democratic Party convention, Bryan made a speech favoring coinage of silver to help farmers.“The Cross of Gold”The CampaignBryan – 14 weeks; gave 600 speechesMcKinley – “Front Porch Campaign”; promised a “Full Dinner Pail”** McKinley won the election!!**After The Populist Party declined
19The Rise of Segregation After the Civil War, many African-Americans in the rural South lived in poverty. Most were sharecroppers (in debt to landlords).The ExodustersBenjamin “Pap” Singleton- (former slave)- urged African-Americans to move west (Kansas).,000 African-Americans left the south for Kansas.Colored Farmer’s Alliance (1886)- blacks formed their own farmer’s organization.If poor whites in the south & African-Americans joined forces in voting for the Populist Party= unbeatable!Democrats divided white farmers (racism) from blacks= no joining of the two= doom for the Populist Party.
20The undermining of African-American rights After Reconstruction ended in 1877, the rights of AA were undermined.Voting RightsThe 15th Amendment denied states the power to deny the right to vote based on “race, color, or previous servitude”States could ban someone from voting based on some other criteria.1890- Mississippi required all citizens to pay a “Poll Tax” & “Literacy Test”Other southern states did the same.In Louisiana—number of registered AA voters fell from 130,000 (1890) to 5,300 (1900).The “Grandfather Clause” – La. Allowed any man to vote IF he had an ancestor who could vote in 1867 (this exempted most whites from poll taxes & literacy tests.)
21SegregationAfrican-Americans in the north were banned from public places but, it was different in the south.States passed laws to enforce discrimination (“Jim Crow Laws”).1883- The Civil Rights CasesSupreme Court overturned the Civil Rights Act 1875Supreme Court said that individuals & business owners were free to practice discrimination.States passed laws—established racial segregation.Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)- Supreme Court ruled racial segregation in public places legal (did not violate 14th Amendment) = segregation in the south for 50 years.
22African-American Response Lynching = 187 lynching's of African-Americans each year.Ida B. Wells- African-American woman; pushed for an end to lynching (mob violence).Congress failed to pass laws to stop the practice1900’s= lynching's decreased.2. Civil Rights: Two African-Americans stood out.Booker T. Washington – African-Americans should focus on economic goals…not political goals (Atlanta Compromise Speech)- postpone fight for civil rights—get education & vocational training.W.E.B. Dubois : advocated that African-Americans demand equal rights now! (1st African-American to graduate Harvard)