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Politics – 1860-1900 Reform, Segregation, Populism and Imperialism.

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Presentation on theme: "Politics – 1860-1900 Reform, Segregation, Populism and Imperialism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Politics – 1860-1900 Reform, Segregation, Populism and Imperialism

2 Election of 1880 Republicans – James Garfield and Chester A. Arthur Democrats – Winfield Hancock and William English

3 Garfield Assassination July 2, 1881 By disgruntled and unbalanced office seeker – Charles Guiteau Arthur became president

4 1. Civil Service Reform Motivated by incompetence and corruption of Grant Administration 1877 – Hayes removed Chester A Arthur from NYC customs House 1883 – Arthur signed the Pendleton Civil Service Act

5 Pendleton Civil Service Act Standards and competitive examinations of positions No soliciting of contributions from government workers ** – ** Forced political parties to look elsewhere for campaign funds. Big Business will gain a controlling hand in national politics

6 The Election of 1884 Republicans: James G. Blaine and Thomas Hendricks Democrats: Grover Cleveland and John Logan Blaine Cleveland -A referendum on the spoils system -Cleveland supported by reform minded Republicans – “mugwumps” - “ Rum, Romanism and Rebellion” – led to high immigrant turnout

7 Election of 1888 Republicans: Benjamin Harrison and Levi Morton Democrats: Grover Cleveland and Allen Thurman Harrison Cleveland Harrison lost popular vote, but won electoral vote Harrison had massive support from big business and The Grand Army of the Republic

8 2. Racial Discrimination Black disfranchisement – Literacy test, poll taxes, property requirements The Convict-lease system – Cheap labor for mines, railroad construction, cotton farmers – Kept white labor from protest or strike Lynchings Civil Rights Cases – declared Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – “separate but equal facilities are constitutional”

9 Black Response Booker T. Washington – “accommodation” – Blacks must acquire skills and prove their economic worth Bishop Henry M. Turner – return to Africa Frederick Douglas – press for full equality T. Thomas Fortune – violence Emigration to northern cities and the Great Plains

10 3. Tariffs, Money, and Agrarian Distress A. Tariffs and Currency – Tariffs Republicans favored high protectionist tariffs – Harrison : McKinley Tariff (1890) Democrats (i.e. Cleveland) sought lower tariffs – To prevent eliminate the surplus and its use for veteran pension expansion – Wilson-Gorman Tariff (still very protectionist) » Included a small income tax » Pollack v. Farmers Loan and Trust – declared the income tax as unconstitutional

11 3. Tariffs, Money, and Agrarian Distress -Currency Big Business, creditors, most politicians supported the gold standard; limited money supply Farmers and other debtors – supported an expanding money supply – Pushed for bi-metalism– (i.e. currency backed by both gold and silver – Bland-Allison Act (1878) – required gov’t to buy and mint up to $ 4 million of silver each month – Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 -- $4.5 million of sliver each month and to issue notes equal to this amount.

12 3. Tariffs, Money, and Agrarian Distress B. Agrarian Distress and Action – Farmers’ problems: Tight money supply Low prices for crops Debt

13 3. Tariffs, Money, and Agrarian Distress Farmers organized – The Grange Began as a social and informational organization Sought to farmers “self-sufficiency” through cooperatives – Failed for lack of capital Pressured states to regulate railroads -- Granger Laws – Most repealed through railroad lobbying – Farmers Alliances Sought tariff reduction, graduated income tax, public ownership of railroads, federal funds of research, ban on alien land ownership, and “free coinage of silver” – Populist Party Sought Alliance goals plus direct election of senators

14 Election of 1892 Republicans: Benjamin Harrison and Whitelaw Reid Democrats: Grover Cleveland and Adlai Stevenson Populists: James Weaver and James Field HarrisonCleveland Weaver Populists “stole” states from Republicans Republican campaign ignored farm and labor unrest; and hurt by the McKinley Tariff Cleveland came out in favor of the gold standard

15 The Panic of 1893 Farm troubles led to a decline in Railroad business, which affected many industries Confidence in gold standard waned: – Financial Crisis in London l – Veterans benefits – Sherman Silver Purchase Act – – Gold reserves dropped Bankruptcy of Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Stock market crash Depression

16 Reactions to Panic/Depression Strikes (e.g., Pullman Strike of 1894) Coxey’s “army” Government borrowed $62 million Democratic party split between “gold” and “silver ”

17 Election of 1896 Republicans: William McKinley and Garret Hobart Democrats: William Jennings Bryan and Arthur Sewall Populists; William Jennings Bryan and Thomas Watson McKinleyBryan  Bryan campaigned on the free and unlimited coinage of silver at a ratio of 16:1 -“Cross of Gold Speech”Cross of Gold Speech”  McKinley supported the gold standard and protective tariff -Had massive funding from big business -Mark Hanna managed McKinley’s “front porch campaign Bryan’s campaign did not appeal to urban workers or stable farmers or many immigrants A victory for big business and tight money -Dingley Tariff (1897) -The Currency Act of 1900

18 American Imperialism Revival of Manifest Destiny – European imperialism – Corporate pressure for new markets – Alfred Mahan: sea power = national greatness – The Christian missionary movement – Social Darwinism

19 American Imperialism 1852 – Commodore Mathew Perry used the American fleet to force Japan to open itself to western trade 1889 – joint protectorate over the Samoan Islands Hawaii – 1887 – new constitution imposed on Hawaiian monarch and U.S. naval base constructed – 1890 – McKinley Tariff on sugar – 1893 – Liliuokalani deposed; annexation requested – 1898 – Hawaii annexed by the U.S.

20 American Imperialism Cuba – Rebellion against Spanish organized by José Martí – Popular support in U.S. Atrocities of “Butcher” Weyler Yellow Journalism (Hearst and Pulitzer) Yellow Journalism – Feb. 8 1898 – the Journal published an insult of President Mckinley by Spanish minister (de Lome letter) – Feb. 15, 1898 -- the U.S.S. Maine sunk in Havana harbor – April 11, 1898 – Congressional resolution to recognized Cuban independence and to support it by force Teller Amendment --U.S. would not seek to “control” Cuba

21 American Imperialism Spanish-American War, 1898 – May 1 – Dewey captured Manila – July 1 – Battle of San Juan Hill (Roosevelt) – July 3 – Spanish fleet destroyed – July 17 – Spain requested an armistice – December – Treaty: Cuban Independence U.S. received Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam – 1901 Platt Amendment U.S. retained U.S. naval base and the right to intervene Philippine Rebellion – 1898-1902


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