19 CoalFormed primarily from the remains of trees, ferns, and other plant materials that were preserved million years agoThere are 3 categories of coal:Lignite – least desirable because of its high moisture contentBituminous – most widely used because it is most abundant and easiest to mineAnthracite – has the highest energy content and is cleanest burning, but is hard to obtain
38 Results of the Clean Air Act In 1990 alone, pollution reductions under the Clean Air Act prevented 205,000 early deathsReductions in fine particle pollution between in U.S. cities led to improvements in average life expectancy at birth of approximately 7 monthsReducing air pollution also improves crop and timber yields, a benefit worth an estimated $5.5 billion to those industries in 2010
39 Percent Change in U.S. Air Quality Pollutant1980 vs. 2013Carbon Monoxide-84%Ozone-33%Lead-92%Nitrogen Dioxide-58%PM10-34%Sulfur Dioxide-81%
46 Advantages and Disadvantages of Coal Energy-denseContains impuritiesPlentifulRelease impurities into air when burnedEasy to exploit by surface miningTrace metals like mercury, lead, and arsenic are found in coalTechnological demands are smallCombustion leads to increased levels of sulfur dioxide and other air pollutants into the atmosphere.Economic costs are lowAsh is left behindEasy to handle and transportCarbon is released into the atmosphere which contributes to climate changeNeeds little refining
82 Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Gas Contains fewer impurities and therefore emits almost no sulfur dioxide or particulatesWhen unburned, methane escapes into the atmosphereEmits only 60% as much carbon dioxide as coalExploration of natural gas has the potential of contaminating groundwater
90 Advantages and Disadvantages of Petroleum Convenient to transport and useReleases carbon dioxide into atmosphereRelatively energy-densePossibility of leaks when extracted and transportedCleaner-burning than coalReleases sulfur, mercury, lead, and arsenic into the atmosphere when burned
99 Nuclear Energy in the World Nuclear power plants generate about 20% of the United States’ electricityIn comparison:30% in Japan30% in Germany39% in South Korea43% in Ukraine46% in Sweden75% in France
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