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Chapter 11 Fossil Fuels.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Fossil Fuels."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Fossil Fuels

2 Reserves vs. Resources Strategic Petroleum Reserve-
__% of petroleum used in U.S. is imported w/ __% coming from Persian Gulf __% people in world use __% of commercial energy

3 Fuel Use In U.S. __% used in industry
__% used for heating, air conditioning, light, & hot water __% used in transportation

4 Fossil Fuels Fossil fuel- oil, natural gas & coal Oil- formed from
Natural gas- formed Includes Coal-

5 Fossil Fuels (cont.) Fossil fuels = non renewable resource
Oil & Natural gas typically found together as they both tend to move upward thru porous rock & pool on top of non-porous rock

6 Types of Coal Lignite- Bituminous coal/ soft coal-
Often contains _____ Used extensively in power plants in Appalachian, Great Lakes & Central Texas Intermediate grade coal ____________

7 Types of Coal (cont.) Anthracite/hard coal-


9 Coal (cont.) Coal typically found in seams underground primarily in Northern Hemisphere w/ largest deposits in U.S., Russia, China, Australia, India, Germany & South Africa U.S. has __% of world’s coal supply

10 Coal Mining 2 types of coal mining Surface mining (__% coal in U.S.)
Strip Pit Dragline Subsurface mining (__% coal in U.S.)

11 Mining Control 1977 Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act- requires closure & reclamation of surface coal mines post Also prohibits coal mining in sensitive areas Also requires gradual restoration of mines abandoned prior to 1977 Scrubbers- clean power plants exhaust by removing sulfur emission (or other chemical) Removes __% of sulfur & __% particles In line scrubbers, lines & water neutralize acidic gases such as sulfur dioxide

12 Resource Recovery Using treatment residues as marketable product (e.g. sulfur from geothermal emissions or calcium sulfate for making wall board from treating sulfur dioxide w/ lime scrubber) 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment Required coal burning power plants to cut sulfur dioxide emissions

13 Clean Coal Technologies
Methods to burn coal w/ fewer emissions =>_____________ Mix crushed coal & limestone in strong air current during combustion. Sulfur in coal reacts w/ limestone to form calcium sulfate which precipitates out during burning rather than removing later. Gives off more heat per amt of coal Done at high pressure so can do combustion at low temps.

14 Energy U.S. Energy breakdown:
Coal- __% Nuclear- __% Hydropower- __% Oil & Natural Gas- __% Petroleum/Crude oil- liquid composed of hundreds of hydrocarbon compounds Separated during refining Natural gas has fewer different hydrocarbons


16 Oil Oil used to create petrochemical compounds Natural gas Oil
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Oil Oil- used in


18 How does a drill rig work?

19 Oil (cont.) Natural gas- Cogeneration-
Natural gas burns clearer but costs 4x as much to transport as oil

20 Petroleum Petroleum (oil & natural gas) found in structural traps geologic structures that tend to trap any oil or natural gas 2 examples of geologic structures are anticlines (upward folding of rock strata) and salt domes (underground columns of salt) [salt domes formed from salt deposits at surface from water evaporation. As salt is less dense than rock, salt tends to rise above the rock. Traps are formed as the rock & salt deform]

21 Geology of Oil

22 Reserves > ___ of Worlds Oil Reserve in Persian Gulf region w/ major fields in U.S., Venezuela, Mexico, Russia & Libya ~ __ of world’s natural gas is in Russia & Iran Future reserves => continental shelves, ocean floor & Antartica

23 How long will oil last? How long gas/oil will last depends on economic factors & consumption, production rate

24 Problems with Petroleum
Problems w/ petroleum use: Combustion Production/Transportation Oil Pollution Act of establishes liability for damage to natural resources from oil spills

25 Other fuels Synthetic Fuels (Synfuels)
Derived from coal & other natural substances Include tar sands, oil shale, gas hydrates, liquefied coal & coal gas Tar Sands (Oil Sands)- underground sand deposits permeated w/ tar or oil so thick & heavy it doesn’t move Oily Rocks (Oil Shale)- sedimentary rocks containing oil that can be refined by crushing, heating, & refining

26 Gas Hydrates (Methane Hydrates)
Reserves of ice Encrusted natural gas located deep underground in porous rock Coal Liquefaction- Creation of liquid fuel from coal. Can be cleaned before burning. Coal Gasification- production of methane by “cracking” coal.

27 U.S. Energy Strategy Objective:
Increase energy efficiency & conservation Secure future fossil fuel supplies Develop alternative energy sources Meet objectives #1-3 w/o further environmental damage

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