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SUSTAINABILITY AND FREIGHT TRANSPORT COST 355 (WATCH) WORKING GROUP 1 Christophe Rizet

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Presentation on theme: "SUSTAINABILITY AND FREIGHT TRANSPORT COST 355 (WATCH) WORKING GROUP 1 Christophe Rizet"— Presentation transcript:

1 SUSTAINABILITY AND FREIGHT TRANSPORT COST 355 (WATCH) WORKING GROUP 1 Christophe Rizet

2 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 2 Defining our objectives Freight and sustainability is large : Our proposal for this WG is to focus on global environment : energy consumption and GHG emissions. INRETS input in this WG (Supply chain) We should keep in mind the possible convergences and synergies with WATCH other WGs.

3 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 3 Convergences and synergies with WATCH other WGs General objective of Watch : analysis of changes in behaviour for a better sustainability of transport WG1 : freight, energy & GHG WG2 : car ownership and car use WG3 : National transport surveys (travellers)

4 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 4 Why energy consumption (& GHG) : World CO2 emission by sector Source : IEA Kyoto objective for EU : - 8% (2010/1990) Next objective (IPCC) North : 75% (2050/1990) Transport & Energy the big problems

5 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 5 GDP and Transport Growth : no decoupling in Europe (EU 15 ; source « EEA Signals 2004 »)

6 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 6 Transport Emission of Air pollutants : mainly GHG (EEA 31 ; source : EEA Signals 2004)

7 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 7 GHG Emissions in Europe : Kyoto objectives & 2001 situation

8 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 8 Reduction of GHG Emissions & the economy What could be done to reduce significantly energy consumption in the transport sector without stopping the economy ? Shippers Carriers Public authorities

9 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 9 Freight, energy & GHG : disaggregated observation - 1 Vehicles - 2 Shipment (transport chains) - 3 Shippers - 4 Supply chain

10 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p The vehicle approach Necessary for any disaggregated approach European projects : MEET, ARTEMIS Simple model doesn’t exist for modes such as rail & waterways

11 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 11 Vehicle Consumption as a function of its total weight (from MEET Hickman 1997)

12 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 12 Vehicle Consumption as a function of its total weight (from Roumegoux 1995)

13 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 13 2) Shipment & transport Chain Per shipment, 2 new problems arise Assign part of the vehicle consumption to the shipment Trace the shipment along the transport chain (more than half the shipments use complex chains, with several vehicles)

14 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 14 2) Energy efficiency per shipment : goe/tkm is very scattered

15 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 15 2) Per shipment distances : on the network or straight line Consumption related to distance - covered on the network (goe/tkm) - Straight Line (goe/tkmSL). Differences come from - The networks - The places of transshipment.

16 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 16 3) Shippers logistical choices grouping shipments Les consommations unitaires, en Gep/tkmVO par chaîne de transport, sont plus importantes - pour les envois groupés (50 gep/tkm) - que pour les non groupés (35)

17 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 17 3) Shippers choices : weight and distance in the global grouping effect

18 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 18 3) Shippers : Just In Time & energy consumption Is Energy efficiency (Goe/tkm) decreasing when delivery time increases ? (NB : small sample, large confidence intervals)

19 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 19 3) Shipper approach : INRETS survey A first shipper survey in 1988 The new shipper survey ( ) designed to grasp energy consumption With the objective of modelling freight demand and energy consumption according to the shippers logistical choices.

20 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 20 4) Energy consumption : the supply chain approach Our input in this WG INRETS, UoW & CERTH With a cooperation from companies

21 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 21 INRETS Supply chain : objective Analyse the influence of the supply chain organisation type of retailers : Hypermarket or small shop origin of the sourcing Chain organisation : number and localisation of the warehouses, logistical tools,..)

22 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 22 Supply chain : method Starting from the retailers 2 products are traced Yogurt : flux tendus et chaîne du froid Textile : sourcing from Asia, magreb,… 2 agglomerations in France (Paris & Aix) plus Greece for yogurt (CERTH) & UK for textile (UoW) We estimate energy consumption at each step with the operators

23 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 23 Supply chain yogurt Estimating energy consumption (and GHG emission) per kg of yogurt all along the supply chain Comparing these energy consumption per yogurt kg according to the characteristics of the supply chain

24 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 24 Yogurt Supply chain : the 9 steps of energy consumption Farm Milk 4 Yoplait yogurt factory 4 Yoplait Warehouse 3 reefer truck 6 Retailer Warehouse 8 Retail shop Consumer home 5 reefer truck 7 reefer truck9 Person. car 1 tank truck

25 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 25 Map : V. Guilbault

26 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 26 Map : V. Guilbault

27 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 27 Steps 1 (collecting milk from the farms) & 2 (yogurt factory) Energy consumed in these steps have been estimated with one single company. For collecting milk : total consumption of the fleet / tonage = 3.5 l. /t. of milk. More milk is needed and bought with higher energy consumption :9.1 l. / t. On average : 6 goe/ kg of yogurt For producing yogurt : 74 goe /kg

28 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 28 Yogurt Supply chain : Steps 3, 5 & 7 : road transport Haulage Energy consumption / 100 km = f (total vehicle weight) Total weight = empty weight + load Count for empty distance Reefer energy consumption = f (time) Energy consumption /kg yogurt = Total consumption per travel / net weight

29 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 29 Yogurt Supply chain : Steps 4 & 6 : Warehousing Determine the products ‘ equivalent to yogurt’ & their surface S in the warehouse Estimate with the Warehouse manager Energy cons. of this surface / year (Es) tonage on this surface / year (Ts) Warehouse energy / yogurt kg = Es / Ts

30 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 30 Yogurt Supply chain : Step 8 : retail shops Energy for the yogurt surface in the shop general energy /m2 of surface + reefer for yogurt coolers (display units) Retail energy /kg yogurt = Total ‘yogurt place energy’ / net yogurt weight sold An important step for energy

31 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 31 Yogurt Supply chain : Step 9 : customer travel The main objective is to differentiate the shop types ; many problems arise Temporarily our method is : Only car travels are counted, only 1 way Average distance & average purchase weight (basket) are estimated with the shop managers and from national studies Energy/ yogurt kg = energy of the average travel / average purchase weight

32 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 32 Yogurt Supply chain analysis Comparing the consumption per step (retail shop, warehousing). Relative importance of each logistical step in the total energy consumption of a supply chain : transport, warehouse, retail, last km. Comparing the total energy consumption of the different types of supply chain.

33 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 33 Possible convergences with WATCH WG 2 & 3 WATCH general objective is to analyse changes in behaviour WG1 is on freight : behaviour = logistical choices we should also consider the possible evolutions of these choices

34 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 34 Possible convergences with WATCH WG 2 With WG2 ( car ownership and car use ) possible convergences on land use What type of retail shop (size & location) is more energy efficient Influence of the town (size & density) and Land use

35 C. Rizet 23/06/2004 COST WATCH 1st WG1 meeting p. 35 Convergence with WATCH WG3 WG3 is on traveller national surveys. Freight analysis and surveys are late compared with traveller : How to observe « freight behaviour » ? (several possible stakeholders for the shipment : more for the supply chain) How to observe (or prepare an observation of) the changes in behaviour ?


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