4 List the milk and dairy foods you ate or drank yesterday. 3.1
5 This group is made up of milk, yogurt and cheese. There are many different types of milk and dairy foods available. For example,Milk: cow’s milk, goat’s milk, soya milk.Yogurt: fromage frais, soya yogurt and yogurt drinks.Cheese: cheddar, parmesan, mozzarella, blue cheese.We should eat some foods from the milk and dairy food group every day because they provide rich sources of calcium and other nutrients.
6 CalciumWe need calcium for strong, healthy bones and teeth. Foods from the milk and dairy food group provide a lot of calcium that is easy for our body to absorb.Although calcium is also found in green leafy vegetables and bread, it is not as easy for the body to absorb from these sources.
7 Other nutrientsMilk and dairy foods also provide other nutrients, such as protein, B vitamins, vitamin A, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and zinc, which we need to keep us healthy.
8 Lactose intoleranceThis is an intolerance to the sugar found in dairy products, known as lactose. People with this condition are unable to digest lactose properly and may cause abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhoea.Lactose intolerant sufferers should avoid all sources of lactose including cows’, sheep and goats’ milk.Lactose intolerance is more common in childhood, but children may grow out of their food intolerance.
9 Dairy products are an important source of calcium in the diet so it is important that a suitable, fortified alternative, such as fortified soya milk, is used to replace them if they are avoided.
10 Healthier optionsHow could you add milk and dairy foods to your diet?BreakfastLunchEvening Meal 3.2
11 Breakfast For breakfast, you could: have skimmed or semi skimmed milk on breakfast cereal;mix fresh fruit with low fat yogurt;have a fruit smoothie made with skimmed or semi skimmed milk or low fat yogurt.
12 Lunch For lunch, you could: have a cheese and salad sandwich; drink a glass of milk;have a pot of low fat fromage frais.
13 Evening meal For your evening meal, you could: have grated cheese on a pizza or spaghetti bolognaise;add low-fat natural yogurt to soups, stews, curries or casseroles;opt for cottage cheese in a jacket potato.
14 FatThe fat content of different milk and dairy foods can vary quite a lot. It is recommended that we should go for low fat or reduced fat versions where we can.
15 Healthier options To keep the fat content down, you can try: skimmed or semi-skimmed milk;low-fat varieties of yogurt, fromage frais and crème fraiche;reduced fat varieties of cheese.These lower fat options still have the same amount of calcium as full fat varieties, but contain less fat.You do not have to avoid full fat varieties of milk and dairy foods all the time, but it's a good idea to eat them less often or have smaller portions.
16 Check the amount of fat in milk and dairy foods by looking at the nutrition information on the food label. Compare similar products and choose the ones which are lower in fat. 3.3
17 Summary Include some milk and dairy foods in your diet every day. Remember these types of foods are an important source of calcium which we need for healthy, strong teeth and bones.Lactose intolerant sufferers should avoid all sources of lactose including cows’, sheep and goats’ milk, but opt for a suitable, calcium-fortified alternative.Go for lower fat varieties where you can.Use the nutrition information on food packaging to help you make healthier choices.
18 The importance of keeping well hydrated Part twoThe importance of keeping well hydrated
19 Importance of fluid Over half of our body is made up of water. We need to replace the water our body loses throughout the day, e.g. in breathing, sweating and going to the toilet.By replenishing our fluid intake, we can help to ensure that our body works efficiently and effectively.
20 Dehydration When we do not drink enough, we dehydrate. Signs of dehydration include feeling thirsty, having a headache, passing dark-coloured urine when you go to the toilet, feeling sleepy and being unable to concentrate.
21 Recall the number of glasses of fluid you drank yesterday. 3.4
22 How much?The amount we need to drink each day varies from one person to another.Generally, it is advised that we should drink about 6 – 8 glasses or 1.2 litres of water each day to keep us hydrated.However, you will need to drink more if the weather is hot or you have been active.
23 How to achieve?We can fulfil our fluid requirements from different sources, such as water and other drinks, as well as the food we eat.Drinking tap water is a good way of keeping our body hydrated and it is freely available in schools and sports centres.Around 1/3 of an adult’s daily fluid intake can come from the food they eat, such as fruit and vegetables, and even bread and dairy products.
24 Other drinksApart from water, other drinks such as fruit juice, fruit smoothies, milk, tea and coffee count towards our fluid intake.However, drinks such as tea, coffee and cola contain caffeine which, if consumed in large amounts, can have a mild diurectic effect on our body. This means that we may need to go to the toilet more often.It is best to drink these types of drinks in moderation and include other drinks that do not contain caffeine throughout the day.
25 Carbonated drinks are often high in added sugar and acids, which can contribute to the risk of tooth decay. Avoid drinking too much of these, especially if you drink them between meals.
26 Getting activeWhen you are physically active, your body loses water through breathing and sweating.You may have lost more water than you might think even if you are not sweaty. This means that you will need to drink more water or fluids to replace the water you have lost.It is best to drink small, regular sips of water whilst being physically active, as this helps you to rehydrate more quickly than by taking one large drink at the end.Even slight dehydration has been shown to affect sporting performance, so drink before, during and after you are physically active.
28 Tips of being well hydrated Keep a bottle of water with you so you can have a drink whenever you need one.Do not wait until you feel thirsty before you have a drink.If you don’t like the taste of water on its own, try adding slices of lemon or lime to give it a different taste.
29 Try to avoid carbonated drinks and squashes as these types of drinks can be high in acids and/or added sugar which can contribute to the risk of tooth decay. Have these types of drinks only occasionally with, rather than between, meals to help minimise the damage to teeth.
30 If you are active, make sure you drink throughout your workout If you are active, make sure you drink throughout your workout. Remember that rehydration is achieved more quickly if you take small, regular sips rather than one large drink at the end.Keep cold drinks in the fridge or a cool place, they will be more thirst-quenching on a hot day if they are really cold!
31 Tips for being well hydrated Keep a bottle of water with you always.Don’t wait until you are thirsty to drinkAdd slices of lemon or lime to water for extra flavour.Avoid carbonated drinks and squashes.Drink water regularly during your workout.Keep cold drinks in the fridge.
32 For further nutrition information, please visit the BNF website orFood - a fact of life