2 OBJECTIVESCORE OBJECTIVE: Explain how geography, culture, and government impacted Classical GreeceObjective 3.1: Identify the different political systems and government that developed in the city-states.Objective 3.2: Summarize the causes and results of the Persian & Peloponnesian Wars.Objective 3.3: Describe Greek culture through art, religion, literature, architecture, drama, and philosophy.Objective 3.4: Summarize the impact of Alexander’s conquests and the resulting Hellenistic Culture.THEME: The Greek culture will have a significant impact and influence on many other world cultures.
3 Classical Greece 2000 B.C.–300 B.C. SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 Cultures of the Mountains and the SeaSECTION 2Warring City-StatesSECTION 3Democracy and Greece’s Golden AgeSECTION 4Alexander’s EmpireSECTION 5These are my notes for slide 2The Spread of the Hellenistic Culture
4 CULTURES OF THE MOUNTAINS AND THE SEA CHAPTER 5 SECTION 1The roots of Greek culture are based on interaction of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian cultures.
6 Greece is known for its classical civilization (500 to 300 BC). Classical Greek culture, particularly that of Athens, is famed for its beautiful arts, architecture, philosophy, theater, Olympic games, and for creating the first democracy.Classical Greece is considered the principal source of Western Civilization.
7 Civilization eventually came to Europe. The first civilizations to develop in Europe were extensions of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt.Europe’s earliest major culture was the Minoan civilization of Crete, the largest of the Greek islands.The Minoan culture was strongly influenced by Egypt.
8 GEOGRAPHY SHAPES LIFE The Climate Ancient Greece The Sea The Land Collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking people liveIncludes mainland and about 2,000 islandsThe SeaThe sea shapes Greek civilizationProximity to sea, lack of resources encourage sea travel and tradeThe LandMountains slow travel, divide land into regionsLack of fertile land leads to small populations, need for coloniesThe ClimateModerate climate promotes outdoor lifeGreek men, especially, spend much of their time outside
9 Greece is a mountainous and rocky peninsula. Greece has little good farmland, but its long irregular coastline provided fine harbors.Many Greeks turned to the sea to make a living by fishing and trading.Greeks established colonies and dominated trade in the Mediterranean and Black Seas.WHAT DID ISOLATION CREATE??????
10 Isolation molded Greek culture. Greek communities isolated by mountains developed into independent city-states that often fought with one another.The leading city-states were Sparta with its strong military government and Athens, the present-day capital of Greece.
11 Mycenaean Civilization Develops OriginsMycenaeans — (the first Greeks) Indo-Europeans who settled on Greek mainland in 2000 B.C.Took their name from their leading city, MycenaeMycenaean warrior-kings dominate Greece from 1600–1100 B.C.Contact with MinoansAfter 1500 B.C., Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea trade and cultureThe Trojan WarTrojan War — fought by Mycenaeans against city of Troy in 1200s B.C.Once thought to be fictional, archaeological evidence has been foundWRITE THIS DOWN!WRITE THIS DOWN!
12 DORIAN DECLINE Dorians Replace Mycenaeans Mycenaean civilization collapses around 1200 B.C.Dorians — group who replaced the Mycenaeans in Greece2nd Greek Civilizationpossibly relatives of Bronze Age Greeks—move into GreeceLess advanced than Mycenaeans, Dorians leave no written recordsEpics of HomerOral tradition grows, especially epics of Homer—a blind storytellerEpic—a narrative poem about heroic deedsHomer’s epic the Iliad, about Trojan War, shows Greek heroic ideal
13 The Iliad describes the Trojan War. In the Trojan War most of Greece united to attack the city-state of Troy, located in Asia Minor.The war lasted for years because Troy was surrounded by strong stone walls.At last the Greeks used a large, hollow, wooden horse with soldiers hidden inside to defeat the defenders of the city of Troy.
14 The Odyssey tells of the travels of the Greek hero Odysseus. He and his men had to overcome many obstacles during their 10-year voyage home from the war in Troy.Eventually Odysseus reaches his home in Ithaca and regains his lost home, his son, his wife, and his kingdom.
15 In both poems, reason and wisdom were better than strength. The heroes of Greek myths such as the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models of excellence for the ancient Greeks.Homer’s poems were later the inspiration for a great outpouring of literature during the Greek classical age.
16 GREEK MYTHS Greeks develop myths—traditional stories about gods The Greeks had a polytheistic religion; their gods lived on Mount Olympus.Greeks seek to understand mysteries of life through mythsGreeks attribute human qualities—love, hate, jealousy—to their godsPopular Greek GodsZeus, ruler of Gods, lives on Mount Olympus with his wife, HeraZeus’s daughter Athena is goddess of wisdom and guardian of citiesAres: God of WarGreek MonstersCentaurs: half-horse; half-human; lawless aggressive creaturesCerberus: hounds of HadesCyclops: giant one-eyed semi gods
20 THE CITY-STATEBy 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or polis, is the formal governmentA polis is a city and its surrounding villages50 to 500 square milesPopulation of a city-state is often less than 10,000Citizens gather in the marketplace and acropolis—a fortified hilltopgreece/videos#deconstructing-history-the-acropolis
21 The Greeks established a new kind of society with the polis. The polis was an association of free male citizens who served as the soldiers who defended their city-state from attack, and they managed the government.The polis chose leaders to govern the city-state for a limited period of time, often a year.
22 EARLY GREEK POLITICS Greek Political Structures Tyrants Seize Power City-states have different forms of governmentMany were ruled by a monarchy, aristocracy, or oligarchyTyrants Seize PowerRulers and common people clash in many city-statesTyrants—nobles and wealthy citizens win support of common peopleThey seize control and rule in the interests of ordinary people
23 ATHENS BUILDS A DEMOCRACY Building DemocracyAbout 621 B.C., democracy — rule by the people — develops in AthensThis slowly develops over time from the influence of Draco, Solon, and CleisthenesOnly native-born, property-owning males are citizensAthenian EducationSchooling only for sons of wealthy familiesGirls learn from mothers and other female members of household
24 SPARTA BUILDS A MILITARY STATE Isolated from much of Greece, Around 725 B.C., Sparta conquers MesseniaMessenians become helots—peasants forced to farm the landHarsh rule leads to Messenian revolt; Spartans build stronger stateSPARTAN LIFESpartan values: duty, strength, individuality, discipline over freedomSparta has the most powerful army in GreeceMales move into barracks at age 7, train until 30, serve until 60Girls receive some military training and live hardy livesGirls also taught to value service to Sparta above all else
25 THE PERSIAN WARS A New Kind of Army Emerges Battle at Marathon Cheaper iron replaces bronze, making arms and armor cheaperLeads to new kind of army; includes soldiers from all classesPhalanx —feared by all, formation of soldiers with spears, shieldsBattle at MarathonPersian Wars — between Greece and Persian EmpirePersian army, led by Darius the great attacks Athensdefeated at Marathon in 490 B.C.Pheidippides Brings NewsRunner Pheidippides races to Athens to announce Greek victoryWRITE THIS DOWN!
26 The Persians tried again to invade Greece in 480 BC. Thermopylae and SalamisIn 480 B.C., Persians launch new invasion of GreeceGreeks are divided; many stay neutral or side with PersiansGreek forces hold Thermopylae (300) for three days before retreating
27 SALAMIS: Xerxes would not get the victory he planned for. The people of Athens fled to the nearby island of Salamis after the Persians conquered and burned Athens.The Persian king, Xerxes, had his throne placed on a hill where he could watch his fleet of a thousand large warships destroy the much smaller Greek fleet.Instead, Xerxes looked on in horror as the Greeks lured his navy into a narrow strait where the smaller Greek ships outmaneuvered and rammed the larger Persian ships, sinking most of the Persian fleet.After the defeat at Salamis, Xerxes went home to Persia, and the Persian Wars soon ended.
28 CONSEQUENCES OF THE PERSIAN WARS New self-confidence in Greece due to victoryAthens emerges as leader of Delian LeagueCity-States combine to keep fighting the PersiansAthens controls the league by using force against opponentsLeague members essentially become provinces of Athenian empireStage is set for a dazzling burst of creativity in AthensWRITE THIS DOWN!