OBJECTIVES CORE OBJECTIVE: Explain how geography, culture, and government impacted Classical Greece Objective 3.1: Identify the different political systems and government that developed in the city-states. Objective 3.2: Summarize the causes and results of the Persian & Peloponnesian Wars. Objective 3.3: Describe Greek culture through art, religion, literature, architecture, drama, and philosophy. Objective 3.4: Summarize the impact of Alexander’s conquests and the resulting Hellenistic Culture. THEME: The Greek culture will have a significant impact and influence on many other world cultures.
Classical Greece 2000 B.C.–300 B.C. SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Warring City-States Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Alexander’s Empire The Spread of the Hellenistic Culture SECTION 5
CULTURES OF THE MOUNTAINS AND THE SEA CHAPTER 5 SECTION 1 The roots of Greek culture are based on interaction of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian cultures.
Greece is known for its classical civilization (500 to 300 BC). Classical Greek culture, particularly that of Athens, is famed for its beautiful arts, architecture, philosophy, theater, Olympic games, and for creating the first democracy. Classical Greece is considered the principal source of Western Civilization.
Civilization eventually came to Europe. The first civilizations to develop in Europe were extensions of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Europe’s earliest major culture was the Minoan civilization of Crete, the largest of the Greek islands. The Minoan culture was strongly influenced by Egypt.
GEOGRAPHY SHAPES LIFE Ancient Greece Collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking people live Includes mainland and about 2,000 islands The Sea The sea shapes Greek civilization Proximity to sea, lack of resources encourage sea travel and trade The Land Mountains slow travel, divide land into regions Lack of fertile land leads to small populations, need for colonies The Climate Moderate climate promotes outdoor life Greek men, especially, spend much of their time outside
Greece is a mountainous and rocky peninsula. Greece has little good farmland, but its long irregular coastline provided fine harbors. Many Greeks turned to the sea to make a living by fishing and trading. Greeks established colonies and dominated trade in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. WHAT DID ISOLATION CREATE??????
Isolation molded Greek culture. Greek communities isolated by mountains developed into independent city-states that often fought with one another. The leading city-states were Sparta with its strong military government and Athens, the present-day capital of Greece.
Mycenaean Civilization Develops Origins Mycenaeans — (the first Greeks) Indo-Europeans who settled on Greek mainland in 2000 B.C. Took their name from their leading city, Mycenae Mycenaean warrior-kings dominate Greece from 1600–1100 B.C. Contact with Minoans After 1500 B.C., Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea trade and culture The Trojan War Trojan War — fought by Mycenaeans against city of Troy in 1200s B.C. Once thought to be fictional, archaeological evidence has been found
DORIAN DECLINE Dorians Replace Mycenaeans Mycenaean civilization collapses around 1200 B.C. Dorians — group who replaced the Mycenaeans in Greece 2 nd Greek Civilization possibly relatives of Bronze Age Greeks—move into Greece Less advanced than Mycenaeans, Dorians leave no written records Epics of Homer Oral tradition grows, especially epics of Homer—a blind storyteller Epic—a narrative poem about heroic deeds Homer’s epic the Iliad, about Trojan War, shows Greek heroic ideal
The Iliad describes the Trojan War. In the Trojan War most of Greece united to attack the city-state of Troy, located in Asia Minor. The war lasted for years because Troy was surrounded by strong stone walls. At last the Greeks used a large, hollow, wooden horse with soldiers hidden inside to defeat the defenders of the city of Troy.
The Odyssey tells of the travels of the Greek hero Odysseus. He and his men had to overcome many obstacles during their 10-year voyage home from the war in Troy. Eventually Odysseus reaches his home in Ithaca and regains his lost home, his son, his wife, and his kingdom.
In both poems, reason and wisdom were better than strength. The heroes of Greek myths such as the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models of excellence for the ancient Greeks. Homer’s poems were later the inspiration for a great outpouring of literature during the Greek classical age.
GREEK MYTHS Greeks develop myths—traditional stories about gods The Greeks had a polytheistic religion; their gods lived on Mount Olympus. Greeks seek to understand mysteries of life through myths Greeks attribute human qualities—love, hate, jealousy—to their gods Popular Greek Gods Zeus, ruler of Gods, lives on Mount Olympus with his wife, Hera Zeus’s daughter Athena is goddess of wisdom and guardian of cities Ares: God of War Greek Monsters Centaurs: half-horse; half-human; lawless aggressive creatures Cerberus: hounds of Hades Cyclops: giant one-eyed semi gods
THE CITY-STATE By 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or polis, is the formal government A polis is a city and its surrounding villages 50 to 500 square miles Population of a city-state is often less than 10,000 Citizens gather in the marketplace and acropolis—a fortified hilltop http://www.history.com/topics/ancient- greece/videos#deconstructing-history-the-acropolis http://www.history.com/topics/ancient- greece/videos#deconstructing-history-the-acropolis
The Greeks established a new kind of society with the polis. The polis was an association of free male citizens who served as the soldiers who defended their city-state from attack, and they managed the government. The polis chose leaders to govern the city-state for a limited period of time, often a year.
EARLY GREEK POLITICS Greek Political Structures City-states have different forms of government Many were ruled by a monarchy, aristocracy, or oligarchy Tyrants Seize Power Rulers and common people clash in many city-states Tyrants—nobles and wealthy citizens win support of common people They seize control and rule in the interests of ordinary people
ATHENS BUILDS A DEMOCRACY Building Democracy About 621 B.C., democracy — rule by the people — develops in Athens This slowly develops over time from the influence of Draco, Solon, and Cleisthenes Only native-born, property-owning males are citizens Athenian Education Schooling only for sons of wealthy families Girls learn from mothers and other female members of household
SPARTA BUILDS A MILITARY STATE Isolated from much of Greece, Around 725 B.C., Sparta conquers Messenia Messenians become helots—peasants forced to farm the land Harsh rule leads to Messenian revolt; Spartans build stronger state SPARTAN LIFE Spartan values: duty, strength, individuality, discipline over freedom Sparta has the most powerful army in Greece Males move into barracks at age 7, train until 30, serve until 60 Girls receive some military training and live hardy lives Girls also taught to value service to Sparta above all else
THE PERSIAN WARS A New Kind of Army Emerges Cheaper iron replaces bronze, making arms and armor cheaper Leads to new kind of army; includes soldiers from all classes Phalanx —feared by all, formation of soldiers with spears, shields Battle at Marathon Persian Wars — between Greece and Persian Empire Persian army, led by Darius the great attacks Athens defeated at Marathon in 490 B.C. Pheidippides Brings News Runner Pheidippides races to Athens to announce Greek victory
The Persians tried again to invade Greece in 480 BC. Thermopylae and Salamis In 480 B.C., Persians launch new invasion of Greece Greeks are divided; many stay neutral or side with Persians Greek forces hold Thermopylae (300) for three days before retreating
SALAMIS : Xerxes would not get the victory he planned for. The people of Athens fled to the nearby island of Salamis after the Persians conquered and burned Athens. The Persian king, Xerxes, had his throne placed on a hill where he could watch his fleet of a thousand large warships destroy the much smaller Greek fleet. Instead, Xerxes looked on in horror as the Greeks lured his navy into a narrow strait where the smaller Greek ships outmaneuvered and rammed the larger Persian ships, sinking most of the Persian fleet. After the defeat at Salamis, Xerxes went home to Persia, and the Persian Wars soon ended.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE PERSIAN WARS Consequences of the Persian Wars o New self-confidence in Greece due to victory o Athens emerges as leader of Delian League City-States combine to keep fighting the Persians o Athens controls the league by using force against opponents o League members essentially become provinces of Athenian empire Stage is set for a dazzling burst of creativity in Athens