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UNIT 2 – GREECE AND ROME LECTURE 1. OBJECTIVES  CORE OBJECTIVE: Explain how geography, culture, and government impacted Classical Greece  Objective.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 2 – GREECE AND ROME LECTURE 1. OBJECTIVES  CORE OBJECTIVE: Explain how geography, culture, and government impacted Classical Greece  Objective."— Presentation transcript:


2 OBJECTIVES  CORE OBJECTIVE: Explain how geography, culture, and government impacted Classical Greece  Objective 3.1: Identify the different political systems and government that developed in the city-states.  Objective 3.2: Summarize the causes and results of the Persian & Peloponnesian Wars.  Objective 3.3: Describe Greek culture through art, religion, literature, architecture, drama, and philosophy.  Objective 3.4: Summarize the impact of Alexander’s conquests and the resulting Hellenistic Culture.  THEME: The Greek culture will have a significant impact and influence on many other world cultures.

3 Classical Greece 2000 B.C.–300 B.C. SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Warring City-States Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Alexander’s Empire The Spread of the Hellenistic Culture SECTION 5

4 CULTURES OF THE MOUNTAINS AND THE SEA CHAPTER 5 SECTION 1 The roots of Greek culture are based on interaction of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian cultures.

5 Greece

6 Greece is known for its classical civilization (500 to 300 BC).  Classical Greek culture, particularly that of Athens, is famed for its beautiful arts, architecture, philosophy, theater, Olympic games, and for creating the first democracy.  Classical Greece is considered the principal source of Western Civilization.

7 Civilization eventually came to Europe.  The first civilizations to develop in Europe were extensions of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt.  Europe’s earliest major culture was the Minoan civilization of Crete, the largest of the Greek islands.  The Minoan culture was strongly influenced by Egypt.

8 GEOGRAPHY SHAPES LIFE  Ancient Greece  Collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking people live  Includes mainland and about 2,000 islands  The Sea  The sea shapes Greek civilization  Proximity to sea, lack of resources encourage sea travel and trade  The Land  Mountains slow travel, divide land into regions  Lack of fertile land leads to small populations, need for colonies  The Climate  Moderate climate promotes outdoor life  Greek men, especially, spend much of their time outside

9 Greece is a mountainous and rocky peninsula.  Greece has little good farmland, but its long irregular coastline provided fine harbors.  Many Greeks turned to the sea to make a living by fishing and trading.  Greeks established colonies and dominated trade in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. WHAT DID ISOLATION CREATE??????

10 Isolation molded Greek culture.  Greek communities isolated by mountains developed into independent city-states that often fought with one another.  The leading city-states were Sparta with its strong military government and Athens, the present-day capital of Greece.

11 Mycenaean Civilization Develops  Origins  Mycenaeans — (the first Greeks) Indo-Europeans who settled on Greek mainland in 2000 B.C.  Took their name from their leading city, Mycenae  Mycenaean warrior-kings dominate Greece from 1600–1100 B.C.  Contact with Minoans  After 1500 B.C., Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea trade and culture  The Trojan War  Trojan War — fought by Mycenaeans against city of Troy in 1200s B.C.  Once thought to be fictional, archaeological evidence has been found

12 DORIAN DECLINE  Dorians Replace Mycenaeans  Mycenaean civilization collapses around 1200 B.C.  Dorians — group who replaced the Mycenaeans in Greece 2 nd Greek Civilization possibly relatives of Bronze Age Greeks—move into Greece  Less advanced than Mycenaeans, Dorians leave no written records  Epics of Homer  Oral tradition grows, especially epics of Homer—a blind storyteller  Epic—a narrative poem about heroic deeds  Homer’s epic the Iliad, about Trojan War, shows Greek heroic ideal

13 The Iliad describes the Trojan War.  In the Trojan War most of Greece united to attack the city-state of Troy, located in Asia Minor.  The war lasted for years because Troy was surrounded by strong stone walls.  At last the Greeks used a large, hollow, wooden horse with soldiers hidden inside to defeat the defenders of the city of Troy.

14 The Odyssey tells of the travels of the Greek hero Odysseus.  He and his men had to overcome many obstacles during their 10-year voyage home from the war in Troy.  Eventually Odysseus reaches his home in Ithaca and regains his lost home, his son, his wife, and his kingdom.

15 In both poems, reason and wisdom were better than strength.  The heroes of Greek myths such as the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models of excellence for the ancient Greeks.  Homer’s poems were later the inspiration for a great outpouring of literature during the Greek classical age.

16 GREEK MYTHS  Greeks develop myths—traditional stories about gods  The Greeks had a polytheistic religion; their gods lived on Mount Olympus.  Greeks seek to understand mysteries of life through myths  Greeks attribute human qualities—love, hate, jealousy—to their gods  Popular Greek Gods  Zeus, ruler of Gods, lives on Mount Olympus with his wife, Hera  Zeus’s daughter Athena is goddess of wisdom and guardian of cities  Ares: God of War  Greek Monsters  Centaurs: half-horse; half-human; lawless aggressive creatures  Cerberus: hounds of Hades  Cyclops: giant one-eyed semi gods

17 GREEK GODS  greece/videos#greek-gods greece/videos#greek-gods

18 WARRING CITY-STATES CHAPTER 5 SECTION 2 The growth of city-states in Greece leads to the development of many different political systems


20 THE CITY-STATE  By 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or polis, is the formal government  A polis is a city and its surrounding villages  50 to 500 square miles  Population of a city-state is often less than 10,000  Citizens gather in the marketplace and acropolis—a fortified hilltop  greece/videos#deconstructing-history-the-acropolis greece/videos#deconstructing-history-the-acropolis

21 The Greeks established a new kind of society with the polis.  The polis was an association of free male citizens who served as the soldiers who defended their city-state from attack, and they managed the government.  The polis chose leaders to govern the city-state for a limited period of time, often a year.

22 EARLY GREEK POLITICS  Greek Political Structures  City-states have different forms of government  Many were ruled by a monarchy, aristocracy, or oligarchy  Tyrants Seize Power  Rulers and common people clash in many city-states  Tyrants—nobles and wealthy citizens win support of common people  They seize control and rule in the interests of ordinary people

23 ATHENS BUILDS A DEMOCRACY  Building Democracy  About 621 B.C., democracy — rule by the people — develops in Athens  This slowly develops over time from the influence of Draco, Solon, and Cleisthenes  Only native-born, property-owning males are citizens  Athenian Education  Schooling only for sons of wealthy families  Girls learn from mothers and other female members of household

24 SPARTA BUILDS A MILITARY STATE  Isolated from much of Greece, Around 725 B.C., Sparta conquers Messenia  Messenians become helots—peasants forced to farm the land  Harsh rule leads to Messenian revolt; Spartans build stronger state  SPARTAN LIFE  Spartan values: duty, strength, individuality, discipline over freedom  Sparta has the most powerful army in Greece  Males move into barracks at age 7, train until 30, serve until 60  Girls receive some military training and live hardy lives  Girls also taught to value service to Sparta above all else

25 THE PERSIAN WARS  A New Kind of Army Emerges  Cheaper iron replaces bronze, making arms and armor cheaper  Leads to new kind of army; includes soldiers from all classes  Phalanx —feared by all, formation of soldiers with spears, shields  Battle at Marathon  Persian Wars — between Greece and Persian Empire  Persian army, led by Darius the great attacks Athens  defeated at Marathon in 490 B.C.  Pheidippides Brings News  Runner Pheidippides races to Athens to announce Greek victory

26 The Persians tried again to invade Greece in 480 BC.  Thermopylae and Salamis  In 480 B.C., Persians launch new invasion of Greece  Greeks are divided; many stay neutral or side with Persians  Greek forces hold Thermopylae (300) for three days before retreating

27 SALAMIS : Xerxes would not get the victory he planned for.  The people of Athens fled to the nearby island of Salamis after the Persians conquered and burned Athens.  The Persian king, Xerxes, had his throne placed on a hill where he could watch his fleet of a thousand large warships destroy the much smaller Greek fleet.  Instead, Xerxes looked on in horror as the Greeks lured his navy into a narrow strait where the smaller Greek ships outmaneuvered and rammed the larger Persian ships, sinking most of the Persian fleet.  After the defeat at Salamis, Xerxes went home to Persia, and the Persian Wars soon ended.

28 CONSEQUENCES OF THE PERSIAN WARS  Consequences of the Persian Wars o New self-confidence in Greece due to victory o Athens emerges as leader of Delian League City-States combine to keep fighting the Persians o Athens controls the league by using force against opponents o League members essentially become provinces of Athenian empire Stage is set for a dazzling burst of creativity in Athens

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