Presentation on theme: " By Shafa B.. Early Iran (3000 BC-625 BC) At the end of the second millennium BC, small groups of nomadic peoples speaking Indo-European languages."— Presentation transcript:
Early Iran (3000 BC-625 BC) At the end of the second millennium BC, small groups of nomadic peoples speaking Indo-European languages began moving into Iran’s cultural area. There were three major groups, the Scythians, the Medes, and the Persians (Achaemenids). The Persians established themselves in modern Shiraz, which would be their eventual settling place. They were led by Hakamanish, ancestor of the Achaemenid dynasty, and his descendent Cyrus II led the forces of Medes and Persians to establish the most extensive empire known in the ancient world. Chogha Zanbil (Outside Mesopotamia) Area where early Persians settled
Sassanid Empire (224- 651 AD) The first Shah of this empire, Ardashir I, reformed the country both economically and militarily. The empire’s territory encompassed much of the middle east including Iraq, Turkey, Egypt, Afghanistan, and more. The Sassanid Era is considered to be the most influential historical periods of Iran. This was the greatest achievement in Persian culture with influences extending to the formation of many countries such as China, Africa, and India. Much of Islamic culture, art, and customs also originated from this period of Iranian history.
Islamic Conquest of Iran (636 AD) Muslims invaded Iran and ended the reign of the Sassanid Empire in 636 AD. The Prophet Mohammad, started the Islamic religion in his hometown of Mecca, and after his death his successor Abu Bakr took up the mission of spreading the religion of Islam. After Abu Bakr defeated the Sassanid army, Iran was left open to the Muslim invaders. The residents of Iran at the time eventually succumbed to their invaders and immersed themselves into the Islamic religion.
Safavid Empire (1501-1736) The Safavids were an Iranian dynasty led by Shah Ismail I. After many years of low Iranian nationalism this empire brought back the Iranian identity of the region. In this era Iran had a variety of settled peoples; in addition to Persians it had Kurds, Arabs, Turkmans and Baluchis. Safavid's power over various tribes was not strong enough to consolidate an absolute supremacy, however, the Safavids laid claim to authority over all that had been Persia. Unfortunately, in 1722 the Afghan army invades Iran and in 1736 Nadir Shah becomes monarch which marked the end of Safavid dynasty.
Constitutional Revolution of Iran (1906-1911) In the early 1900s Iran realized that a written code of laws was necessary for the success of the country. The Laws approved in 1907 provided, within limits, for freedom of press, speech, association, while limiting the absolutist powers of rulers. The Constitutional Revolution marked the end of the medieval period in Iran. The hopes for constitutional rule were not realized, however, and the new shah, Mohammad Ali Shah was set on crushing the constitution. But in 1909, pro-constitutional forces deposed the shah and reestablished the constitution. Freedom Forces responsible for implementation of constitution
Era of Reza Shah Pahlavi (1921-1941) Military commander Reza Shah Pahlavi seized power in February of 1941. Reza Shah had many ambitious plans for Iran including large scale industries and infrastructure projects including building a railroad system. He believed in a strong central government that by the mid 1930’s was despised by many living in Iran. In 1935 Reza Shah dictated that the country should be called Iran, not Persia. Reza Shah Pahlavi was forced into exile by the British and was replaced by his son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.
World War II and Iran (1941-1945) Iran served to be a valuable oil source in the Allied Lend- Lease Act during WWII. However Reza Shah Pahlavi’s pro-German sympathies led to British and Soviet occupation of Iran. The British, despising Iran’s Foreign policy towards Germany, eventually forced out Reza Shah for his pro- British son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. In the Tehran Conference Iran was granted postwar independence from its occupiers but Soviet troops in northwestern Iran refused to leave and backed many pro-Soviet revolutions in Iran. The Soviet Union did not officially withdraw from Iran until 1946.
Oil Nationalization (1949-1951) From 1949 on, public sentiment for the nationalization of Iran’s oil industry grew. The British government a the time had an agreement with Iran that granted them more profit from Iran’s oil than Iran itself with the British-owned Anglo- Iranian Oil Company. In light of this, Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq came into power as Prime Minister with the intention of nationalizing Iran’s oil. In 1951 he succeeded with Parliament voting pro-nationalization, but Britain imposed an embargo and blockade of Iranian exports soon after. A power struggle between Mosaddeq and the Shah erupted and the Shah fled Iran in 1953.
British-US Coup of Iran (1953) As Mosaddeq’s success as Prime Minister grew, Britain and the United States formulated a coup to reestablish the Shah into power in Iran. The CIA worked hand in hand with royalist Iranian officials planning who would replace the prime minister. The coup almost failed, with CIA agents ready to flee the country, but US hired Iranian officers took command and seized the government. Days later the Iranian government received five million dollars in funds from the US to help take control of the country. The Shah returned to power in August, 1953. Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq, and Dr. Donald N. Wilber, a CIA spy
The Shah’s White Revolution (1963) In January of 1963 Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi embarked on a campaign to modernize Iran with land reform, better political representation, the right to vote for women and economic modernization. He called this the “White Revolution”, and it was praised by everyone with a 99% acceptance rating. These reforms achieved success in backing by the population but it did not immediately gain success economically. A religious leader at the time, Ayatollah Khomeini, gave an anti-Shah speech that resulted in his arrest and then riots all over Iran.
The Shah’s Exile and Ayatollah Khomeini’s Return (1979) Despite some economic growth, there was still much opposition to the Shah’s rule in Iran. Most of his economic reforms were poorly implemented and caused much inflation and economical unrest. Also, a lot of western culture had leaked into the Iranian culture. This foreign presence made the population believe that the Shah’s modernization was threatening the old cultural values of Iran. All of this was intensified by Ayatollah Khomeini, who had been sending in propaganda through music cassettes during his exile in Iraq. The Shah left Iran in January of 1979 and opened the door to Khomeini’s return in February of 1979.
The Islamic Revolution (1979) After the Shah left Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini seized power in Iran. He implemented a new Islamic Constitution with many extreme changes. Subsequently many demonstrations were held in protest to the new rules, like extreme regulations on women's code of dress. On November 4, 1979 Iranian Islamic Students stormed the US embassy, taking 66 people, mostly Americans, as hostages. The Islamic revolution was an extreme time in Iranian history, with protests, riots, and even executions of leaders of the old regime. Student led revolutionaries storming the US embassy
Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) On September 22, 1980 Iraq invaded Iran believing it could take over a weak government in revolution. Iraq and Iran had engaged in border clashes for many years, and Saddam Hussein believed that the new revolutionary government would threaten Iraq. Iraq had a large technological advantage, with Soviet weapons and tanks, and a more organized military. But Iran’s determination and willingness for a battle of attrition kept them in the war. Eventually after many years of casualties Iran accepted a ceasefire agreement with Iraq following negotiations in Geneva.
Mohammad Khatami (1997-2004) Mohammad Khatami was elected president of Iran in 1997, defeating the conservative elite with 70% of the votes. His campaign was based on greater freedom of expression, and better ways to help tackle unemployment. His victory was largely based on the young people who were very much impressed by his liberal views. In 1998 he addressed the American nation saying that Iran was “no threat” to the United States. Unfortunately, the conservative elite made it difficult for Khatami to pass any bills and because of this student led protests called for his resignation along with the conservative elites.
Mahmoud Almadinejad and the Nuclear Crisis (2005- Present) In 2005, due to a conservative resurgence, Mahmoud Almadinejad is elected President of Iran. He is considered to have very a confrontational foreign policy but he was still backed by the conservatives who took over two-thirds of the seats in the parliamentary elections in 2007. President Almadinejad has made many various claims regarding Iran’s nuclear program but he has stayed constant on his anti-Israeli mentality. In 2007 Almadinejad claims that Iran can produce nuclear fuel on an industrial scale. In December of 2007 a new US intelligence report plays down the perceived nuclear threat posed by Iran, and currently Iran intentions regarding Nuclear Weapons are unclear.
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