Presentation on theme: "Contributions (REVIEW) 1.Cuneiform 2. Wheel – Helped transportation 3. Plow – Made it possible for farmers to grow more food with less effort 4. Sailboat."— Presentation transcript:
Contributions (REVIEW) 1.Cuneiform 2. Wheel – Helped transportation 3. Plow – Made it possible for farmers to grow more food with less effort 4. Sailboat – Replaced muscle power with wind power 5. Calendar – The people of Mesopotamia developed a 12-month calendar based on the cycles of the moon. The calendar marked the times for religious festivals and planting 6. Math – The people developed a number system based on 60. From this came the 60-minute hour, 60-second minute, and the 360-degree circle. 7. Water Clock – A clock that was operated by controlled drops of water.
Write Pair Share How have inventions by the people of Mesopotamia helped shape present day life?
Anticipation Guide 1. Under King Nebuchadnezzar, Babylon was one of the poorest cities of its time. 2. The Chaldeans called themselves Babylonians. 3. Nebuchadnezzar built Babylon’s famous hanging gardens to please his wife. 4. Babylon was not a center for science. 5. As time passed the Chaldeans began to lose their power over the people they conquered and it was eventually absorbed into the Persian Empire.
Chaldeans Define Economy: Economy- The rate at which goods and services are exchanged. As trade increases an economy will do better. As a result of trade Babylon was the richest city in the ancient world.
Chaldeans ◦ Define caravans – groups of traveling merchants Write Pair Share: ◦ How would caravans impact the Babylonian economy?
Chaldeans Who is Nebuchadnezzar ◦ The King of the Chaldeans Describe Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar: It had its own police force and postal system. Huge brick walls circled the city. The walls were so wide that two chariots could pass on the road on top. Archers guarded the approaches to the city from towers built into the walls. In the center stood palaces and temples. It had huge hanging gardens
Chaldeans Why was Babylon a center of science? Chaldean astronomers made many discoveries Define astronomer - people who collect, study, and explain facts about the heavenly bodies Contributions of Chaldean astronomers ◦ They made one of the first sun-dials. ◦ They were also the first to have a seven- day week.
Chaldeans How did the Chaldeans lose their power? ◦ The Chaldeans found it hard to control the peoples they had conquered. Who eventually conquered the Chaldeans? ◦ Eventually, the Persians captured Babylon and Mesopotamia became part of the Persian Empire
Persians Who were the Persians? They were a part of the people known as Aryans, a group in central Asia (now Iran). Who was Cyrus and what did he do? ◦ He was a Persian king, he allowed his subjects to keep their own language, religion, and laws.
Persians Who were the Immortals? ◦ They were the best fighters in the Persian army. ◦ They earned this name because their number never fell below 10,000. ◦ When an Immortal became sick, injured, or died, another soldier took their place. ◦ The Immortals led the Persian into battle.
Persians How large did the Persian empire grow? The Persians ruled an empire that stretched from Egypt to India.
Quick Assessment: 1. How did the Persian King manage his large empire? 2. What was life like for Persian women? 3. Who are Ahura Mazda and Ahriman and what did Zoroaster say about them? 4. How did the use of coined money help increase trade?
Persians How did the Persians treat those they conquered? ◦ They allowed their subjects to keep their own language, religion, and laws. ◦ The Persians believed loyalty could be won more easily with fairness than with fear or force. ◦ The Persians wanted their subjects to pay taxes and to produce goods for trade. ◦ The above-mentioned items would not be done if those under their rule were treated badly.
Persians Who was Darius? ◦ He was one of the strongest Persian kings. ◦ He brought artisans from many lands to build a grand palace-fortress- treasury in the capital city of Persepolis, which became the most magnificent city in the empire.
Persians How did the Persian expand and improve trade? ◦ The Persians improved and expanded the system of roads begun by the Assyrians. ◦ The Persians also opened a caravan route to China (silk was first brought west along this route). ◦ The Persians spread the idea of using coins for money, which was started by the Lydians.