Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 2 Section 3 & 4 Sumerian Civilization & Empires of the Fertile Crescent.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Section 3 & 4 Sumerian Civilization & Empires of the Fertile Crescent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Section 3 & 4 Sumerian Civilization & Empires of the Fertile Crescent

2 The Fertile Crescent Fertile Crescent b/w Mediterranean Sea and Persian Gulf b/w Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Map pg 28

3 Sumer Lowest part of Tigris-Euphrates Valley Rich soil Sumerians used metal as early as 3000 B.C

4 Sumerian City-States City-State= Land of city and surroundings controlled just by its own city Ur, Erech, & Kish had thousands of residents Seldom united Priests started out as rulers Warlords took over as kings as there was a need for control in city-states

5 Sumerian Writing Earliest written language No paper & Carved into clay Cuneiform- Sumerian writing consisted of over 600 symbols all in wedge form

6 Sumerian Engineering Built with sun dried bricks made of mud and straw Sumerians biggest contribution in engineering= The ARCH Arch= Curved structure with an opening

7 Continued Ziggurats- Sumerian Temples –Layered buildings each layer getting smaller to the top

8 Numbering and Math Everything in multiples of 60 Big numbers example 120 would be two 60’s Circle 360 degrees = six 60’s Time- hour= 60 minutes –Minute= 60 seconds Had a Lunar Calendar

9 Education & Religion Polytheistic (believed in many gods) Only Upper class boys went to school to be educated

10 Empires Of the Fertile Crescent Lack of unity of the Sumerian City-States made them vulnerable to attack and take over

11 Akkadians Akkadians conquered Sumerians Around 2330 B.C. Came from Just north of Sumer in Mesopotamia Sargon- most powerful Akkadian King Expanded Empire to Mediterranean Sea Akkadian Empire Lasted 100 years

12 Babylonians Took over Fertile Crescent 1792 B.C. Hammurabi Powerful Babylonian Leader Developed the Code of Hammurabi –282 laws –Covered many rights such as working conditions, wages, and fees for charges –Judges appointed by the king enforced these laws –Most punishments for laws breakers were “eye for an eye,” ruling

13 Babylonian Social classes/religion Same social class break as the Sumerians Marriages- were arranged from parents Husband of the marriage had control –Man head of household –Only the man could get a divorce Code of Hammurabi still protected women as well as men for fair treatment Polytheistic- Adopted Sumerian religion

14 Hittites Very Warlike Good Fighters First to make & use iron weapons Ruled in1600 B.C. Rule short lived too far from home

15 Assyrians Great conquers Ruled Fertile Crescent around 900 B.C. Ruled over Syria, Babylonia, and Egypt First to have a major cavalry (units of soldiers on horseback)

16 Assyrian Government Emperor/King had absolute power Each conquered Territory had an Appointed Governor Appointed by King King made inspections Army most important part of government Soldiers gained wealth from the lands they conquered

17 Assyrian Greatness Capital Nineveh Very fortified Had aqueducts Large Libraries were built in the city, Compilation of many Clay tablets Great Epic (Epic of Gilgamesh)

18 Chaldeans Ruled by Nebuchadnezzar 605-562 B.C. –Rebuilt City of Babylon –Very Strong Leader (heart and soul of Chaldean Empire) –Made the Hanging Gardens (One of the seven wonders of the world) After Nebuchadnezzar’s death Chaldean Empire Fell to the Persians)



21 Persians Conquered Babylon & Chaldeans in 539 B.C. Early kings very powerful Established and Expanded the biggest empire in history to this point. Kings all powerful –Great leaders and generals

22 Great Persian Kings Cyrus- took over rule in Iran –Conquered Babylon after Nebuchadnezzar –Greatly expanded the empire –Took control of all of the Fertile Crescent Darius- Second Persian Emperor –Greatly expanded the empire more than just Fertile Crescent –Gained control of parts of Greece

23 Continued Xerxes-Third great Persian Emperor –Expanded the empire even more All Persian emperors had a good sense of justice and treated their conquered territories better than previous empires Starting with Cyrus territories were allowed to keep their own religion and laws


25 Persian Religion Persians=new form of religion from influential profit (Zoroaster) Zoroastrianism- Belief that every person on earth had a choice –To do good in the world –Or to do evil –Life on earth was training for a better life –Good will triumph over evil in the end

26 Fall of Persian Empire After Xerxes= Weaker Leadership Finally taken over by Alexander the Great

27 Quiz 1. What are the two major rivers in the Fertile Crescent? 2. What architectural advancements did the Sumerians give us? 3. Define a city state 4. Define Polytheism 5. What was the First Empire to use Iron Weapons? 6. What Empire used the first cavalry? 7. Who built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife? 8. Name the three great Persian Kings. 9. Who takes over Persia?

Download ppt "Chapter 2 Section 3 & 4 Sumerian Civilization & Empires of the Fertile Crescent."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google