Presentation on theme: "Presented By: Joshua Burrows. World War I Begins."— Presentation transcript:
Presented By: Joshua Burrows
World War I Begins
M.A.I.N. Militarism- the development of armed forces for use as tools for imperialism and diplomacy Alliances Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire Allies- Britain, France, and Russia
Imperialism- the extension of a nation’s control over new territory Nationalism- devotion to and pride in the interests and culture of one’s nation
“Powder Keg of Europe” Countries Albania Bosnia Romania Serbia International Interests Railway from Germany to Ottoman Empire Russia> Mediterranean Sea
Map of WWI Map of the Alliances in Europe during World War I
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in 1914 Heir to the Austrian Throne Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip: Assassin Results Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Alliance system is put into action
The Archduke Picture of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. He would of inherited the throne of Austria if he was not assassinated.
Gavrilo Princip The assassin who was responsible for murdering The Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his mistress Sophie. He was believed to be a member of the gang The Black Hand
Emperor of Germany Portrait of Kaiser Wilhelm II, the Emperor of Germany. Aiding Austria-Hungary because of the alliance system, he will unknowingly be the cause of the US joining the Allies in WWI
Schlieffen Plan Germany’s strategic plan to go straight to Paris After conquering France, attention could be directed at Russia Allies hold up at the Marne River and conduct Trench Warfare
3 types of Trench Warfare Front Line Support Reserve “No Man’s Land”- godforsaken area between the trenches Trench Warfare was brutal and harsh for both the attackers and defenders Huge amounts of casualties for charging forces Trench foot, Shellshock, and disease took a toll on defenders
In 1914, most US citizens did not want to get involved In contradiction, some still had ties to Europe Felt close to Europe due to: ▪ Common language ▪ Ancestry ▪ Government US had economic ties with the Allies
Trench Warfare Pictures of the brutal conditions of trench warfare experienced in WWI. Between the confined space, mud, disease, depression, low morale, death, and many other factors, WWI had some of the worst conditions for soldiers out of any war.
British Blockade- The British Royal Navy blockaded German Coast Prevent weapons and military supplies from leaving or entering Germany American ships carrying German merchandise couldn’t go through the blockade Germany could not import foods Resulted in famine
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare German response to British Blockade German U-Boats would engage any ships flying Allied Flags Germans sank the Lusitania in 1915 128 American casualties Sussex Pledge- Germany will not sink anymore ships without warning 1916 Election- Woodrow Wilson is relected “He Kept Us Out Of War”
Sinking of the Lusitania Illustration of the U-Boat U-20 surfacing after sinking the British passenger ship Lusitania
Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare Zimmerman Note Secret note from Germany to Mexico If Mexico joined the Central Powers, they would receive the Mexican Cession Territory British intercepted the telegram, sent it to the US; Mexico declined the offer
Zimmerman Note Political Cartoon Any early form of the press expressing their opinions of politics, Political Cartoons have been made around for a long time. This is one describing the Zimmerman Note situation.
The Zimmerman Note The “before” and “after” of the interception of the Zimmerman Note
Oppressive Russian monarchy replaced with a democracy US feared communism Bolshevic Revolution US felt comfortable with Lenin’s Russia President Woodrow Wilson delivers a declaration of war US joins the Allies
American Power Tips the Balance
Selective Service Act- required for men to register with in order to be randomly selected for military service The US had to achieve the goal of supplying and transporting a large army during German unrestricted submarine warfare Exempted shipyard workers for draft Shipyards used assembly line techniques Converted commercial and private ships into warships
American Admiral William S. Sims conceived the idea of the Convoy System Armed Destroyers escort merchant or supply ships on the Atlantic American troops contributed the Allied war effort with supplies, troops, and moral American Expeditionary Force ▪ Known as the “Doughboys” Commanded by General John J. Pershing
Convoy System A group of Destroyer Class Warships escorts civilian ships across the Atlantic
The first machine gun was used in the American Civil War Designed by Gatling; known as the “Gatling Gun” or the “Gatling Cannon” ▪ Multiple Barrels ▪ Crank powered ▪ Shell Casings Fast-forward 60 years, machine guns are gas powered and chain or clip fed Maxim, Vickers, Lewis, and Hotchkiss machine guns were some of the most widely used
WWI Machine Guns Pictures of common machine guns used in WWI; Vickers Machine Gun (Top Left), Maxim Machine Gun (Top Right), Lewis Machine Gun (Bottom)
Tanks were the infantry’s worst nightmare on a WWI battlefield Primitive tanks were designed to punch through “No Man’s Land” and take enemy trenches by force However tanks in WWI had defects Lightly armored and armed Tank crews would experience sea sickness Gas fumes would flood the inside compartment
WWI Tanks Picture of a British Mark I Tank issued into service in Some initial models had two large wheels added to the back for aided steering, but after proved unsuccessful, they were left off of later models
Airplanes would be the one invention that wasn’t originally intended for warfare but would be used for war to this day Originally created by Orville and Wilbur Wright for transportation and commercial use During WWI it would have various uses Dogfights- multiple planes would fight in air Bombers- capable of dropping a single bomb Scouts- used to scout out enemy movements ahead
WWI Airplanes Picture of Central Powers bombers targeting allies on the battlefield. These primitive airplanes are made out of wood and light fabric material and could not withstand much flak, as seen around the airplanes in the photo.
Dating back to the 18 th and 19 th centuries, Observation Balloons were widely used by both sides during WWI Used to observe the battlefield and give information to the infantry, they had their pros and cons “Sitting Duck” Flack, AA, Machine Guns, and nets were used as defense
Poison Gas was a new form of military technology first used in WWI Will come to be known as “chemical warfare” Most commonly used was Chlorine Gas Targeted “No Man’s Land” and enemy trenches Either dropped from a bomber or shot from artillery Chlorine Gas reacts with moisture; First burning your eyes, then turning your lungs into liquid
Chlorine Gas Victims of a Chlorine Gas attack in WWI. Bandages over their blinded eyes, surprisingly, these were the lucky ones.
Trench Warfare Trench mouth and trench foot Lice, rats, disease Polluted water, poison gas Battle fatigue and Shellshock Civilian targets Libraries Cathedrals City Districts
Russia signed their own treaty with Germany after the Bolshevic Revolution in 1917 Left out of the Treaty of Versailles Germans shifted attention to Western Front Americans reinforce the allies just in time Stopped the German offensive Tide began to turn against the Central Powers
Austria-Hungary surrenders in November, 1918 German sailors mutinied Mutiny spread like wildfire Germans started to organize revolutions Berlin Socialists began to establish a Republic Kaiser Wilhelm II gave up throne Germans were exhausted to keep fighting WWI ends on the 11 th hour on the 11 th day in the 11 th month of 1918 Germany agreed to an Armistice ▪ Everybody drops their weapons and goes home