3Causes of World War I M.A.I.N. Militarism- the development of armed forces for use as tools for imperialism and diplomacyAlliancesCentral Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman EmpireAllies- Britain, France, and Russia
4Causes of World War I Cont. Imperialism- the extension of a nation’s control over new territoryNationalism- devotion to and pride in the interests and culture of one’s nation
5Balkan Peninsula “Powder Keg of Europe” Countries AlbaniaBosniaRomaniaSerbiaInternational InterestsRailway from Germany to Ottoman EmpireRussia> Mediterranean Sea
6Map of WWIMap of the Alliances in Europe during World War I
7The Spark : Assassination Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in 1914Heir to the Austrian ThroneSerbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip: AssassinResultsAustria-Hungary declares war on SerbiaAlliance system is put into action
8The ArchdukePicture of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. He would of inherited the throne of Austria if he was not assassinated.
9Gavrilo PrincipThe assassin who was responsible for murdering The Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his mistress Sophie. He was believed to be a member of the gang The Black Hand
10Emperor of GermanyPortrait of Kaiser Wilhelm II, the Emperor of Germany. Aiding Austria-Hungary because of the alliance system, he will unknowingly be the cause of the US joining the Allies in WWI
11Warfare Begins Schlieffen Plan Germany’s strategic plan to go straight to ParisAfter conquering France, attention could be directed at RussiaAllies hold up at the Marne River and conduct Trench Warfare
12Warfare Begins Continued 3 types of Trench WarfareFront LineSupportReserve“No Man’s Land”- godforsaken area between the trenchesTrench Warfare was brutal and harsh for both the attackers and defendersHuge amounts of casualties for charging forcesTrench foot, Shellshock, and disease took a toll on defenders
13America Questions Neutrality In 1914, most US citizens did not want to get involvedIn contradiction, some still had ties to EuropeFelt close to Europe due to:Common languageAncestryGovernmentUS had economic ties with the Allies
14Trench WarfarePictures of the brutal conditions of trench warfare experienced in WWI. Between the confined space, mud, disease, depression, low morale, death, and many other factors, WWI had some of the worst conditions for soldiers out of any war.
15BlockadeBritish Blockade- The British Royal Navy blockaded German CoastPrevent weapons and military supplies from leaving or entering GermanyAmerican ships carrying German merchandise couldn’t go through the blockadeGermany could not import foodsResulted in famine
16The War Hits Home Unrestricted Submarine Warfare German response to British BlockadeGerman U-Boats would engage any ships flying Allied FlagsGermans sank the Lusitania in 1915128 American casualtiesSussex Pledge- Germany will not sink anymore ships without warning1916 Election- Woodrow Wilson is relected“He Kept Us Out Of War”
17Sinking of the Lusitania Illustration of the U-Boat U-20 surfacing after sinking the British passenger ship Lusitania
18The US Gets Involved Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare Zimmerman NoteSecret note from Germany to MexicoIf Mexico joined the Central Powers, they would receive the Mexican Cession TerritoryBritish intercepted the telegram, sent it to the US; Mexico declined the offer
19Zimmerman Note Political Cartoon Any early form of the press expressing their opinions of politics, Political Cartoons have been made around for a long time. This is one describing the Zimmerman Note situation.
20The Zimmerman NoteThe “before” and “after” of the interception of the Zimmerman Note
21US Declares War Oppressive Russian monarchy replaced with a democracy US feared communismBolshevic RevolutionUS felt comfortable with Lenin’s RussiaPresident Woodrow Wilson delivers a declaration of warUS joins the Allies
23America MobilizesSelective Service Act- required for men to register with in order to be randomly selected for military serviceThe US had to achieve the goal of supplying and transporting a large army during German unrestricted submarine warfareExempted shipyard workers for draftShipyards used assembly line techniquesConverted commercial and private ships into warships
24America Turns the TideAmerican Admiral William S. Sims conceived the idea of the Convoy SystemArmed Destroyers escort merchant or supply ships on the AtlanticAmerican troops contributed the Allied war effort with supplies, troops, and moralAmerican Expeditionary ForceKnown as the “Doughboys”Commanded by General John J. Pershing
25Convoy SystemA group of Destroyer Class Warships escorts civilian ships across the Atlantic
26New Weaponry Machine Guns Tanks Airplanes Observation Balloons Poison Gas
27Machine Guns The first machine gun was used in the American Civil War Designed by Gatling; known as the “Gatling Gun” or the “Gatling Cannon”Multiple BarrelsCrank poweredShell CasingsFast-forward 60 years, machine guns are gas powered and chain or clip fedMaxim, Vickers, Lewis, and Hotchkiss machine guns were some of the most widely used
28WWI Machine GunsPictures of common machine guns used in WWI; Vickers Machine Gun (Top Left), Maxim Machine Gun (Top Right), Lewis Machine Gun (Bottom)
29Tanks Tanks were the infantry’s worst nightmare on a WWI battlefield Primitive tanks were designed to punch through “No Man’s Land” and take enemy trenches by forceHowever tanks in WWI had defectsLightly armored and armedTank crews would experience sea sicknessGas fumes would flood the inside compartment
30WWI TanksPicture of a British Mark I Tank issued into service in Some initial models had two large wheels added to the back for aided steering, but after proved unsuccessful, they were left off of later models
31AirplanesAirplanes would be the one invention that wasn’t originally intended for warfare but would be used for war to this dayOriginally created by Orville and Wilbur Wright for transportation and commercial useDuring WWI it would have various usesDogfights- multiple planes would fight in airBombers- capable of dropping a single bombScouts- used to scout out enemy movements ahead
32WWI AirplanesPicture of Central Powers bombers targeting allies on the battlefield. These primitive airplanes are made out of wood and light fabric material and could not withstand much flak, as seen around the airplanes in the photo.
33Observation BalloonsDating back to the 18th and 19th centuries, Observation Balloons were widely used by both sides during WWIUsed to observe the battlefield and give information to the infantry, they had their pros and cons“Sitting Duck”Flack, AA, Machine Guns, and nets were used as defense
34Poison GasPoison Gas was a new form of military technology first used in WWIWill come to be known as “chemical warfare”Most commonly used was Chlorine GasTargeted “No Man’s Land” and enemy trenchesEither dropped from a bomber or shot from artilleryChlorine Gas reacts with moisture; First burning your eyes, then turning your lungs into liquid
35Chlorine GasVictims of a Chlorine Gas attack in WWI. Bandages over their blinded eyes, surprisingly, these were the lucky ones.
36New Hazards Trench Warfare Battle fatigue and Shellshock Trench mouth and trench footLice, rats, diseasePolluted water, poison gasBattle fatigue and ShellshockCivilian targetsLibrariesCathedralsCity Districts
37American Troops Go on the Offensive Russia signed their own treaty with Germany after the Bolshevic Revolution in 1917Left out of the Treaty of VersaillesGermans shifted attention to Western FrontAmericans reinforce the allies just in timeStopped the German offensiveTide began to turn against the Central Powers
38The Collapse of the Central Powers Austria-Hungary surrenders in November, 1918German sailors mutiniedMutiny spread like wildfireGermans started to organize revolutionsBerlin Socialists began to establish a RepublicKaiser Wilhelm II gave up throneGermans were exhausted to keep fightingWWI ends on the 11th hour on the 11th day in the 11th month of 1918Germany agreed to an ArmisticeEverybody drops their weapons and goes home