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Western Civilization I HIS-101 UNIT 6 - The Roman Empire.

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1 Western Civilization I HIS-101 UNIT 6 - The Roman Empire

2 Principate (27 BCE – 284 CE)  Octavian was consul for the first four years of his rule  Rome was not willing to give him complete control  He realized he could not push the issue  If he did, it would lead to more civil wars  Augustus knew he could not openly act like the sole ruler  Needed to appease the Senate by keeping some of the republican ideas in place  But he realized that the old Republic could not be restored  In January 27 BCE, he issued his First Settlement  This began the era of the Principate

3 Principate (27 BCE – 284 CE)  Terms of the First Settlement  He “gave up” all his powers to the Senate  Senate gave him control of Egypt, Spain, Gaul, Syria, and Cyprus  Augustus would co-rule as princeps (“chief citizen”) with the Senate  Technically, the position of Princeps held no actual power  The Senate gave him two titles:  Imperator – Emperor  Augustus – “The Revered One”  This marks the beginning of the Roman Empire

4 Principate (27 BCE – 284 CE)  Senate was now the chief deliberative body of the state  Its decrees had the effect of law  It also served as the high court of justice  From 27 to 23 BCE, Augustus served as consul  Spent most of his time in Spain and Gaul putting down revolts  Second Settlement (23 BCE)  Augustus would give up his position of consul allowing a Senator to be able to hold the position  He would receive Maius Imperium (“Greater Imperium”)  He was also given the power of a Tribune  This allowed him to propose laws, call the Senate, and veto any laws

5 Principate (27 BCE – 284 CE)  Augustus’ power continued to grow over time  In 12 BCE, he was made Pontifex Maximus  In 2BCE, he was given the title Pater Patriae (“father of the country”)  The power of the popular assemblies declined  Augustus made sure his candidates won elections  Decrees of the Senate became more powerful than theirs  This loss of power did not negatively affect Augustus  Because he followed proper legal forms, he proved to be very popular with the people

6  Roman Army Military Parade

7 The Army During the Principate  The army was the source of Augustus’ power  He had to not only keep the army loyal to him but also use it to keep the peace  It was responsible for not only guarding the frontiers of the empire but also retaining control inside of it  Augustus also used the army to “Romanize” the provinces  He would place colonies of veterans throughout the empire  Kept the army small  He believed it had been larger than necessary and therefore too expensive

8 The Army During the Principate  Augustus created a standing army of 28 legions  Each legion had 5,400 soldiers at full strength  They were recruited only from the citizenry, mainly Italy, and served a term of 20 years  He held the title of Imperator in the army  Praetorian Guard  This was an elite group who guarded the princeps  9,000 Roman citizens in Italy who served for 16 years  Enlisted Auxiliary Forces  Around 130,000 light-armed troops and cavalry  Recruited only from the non-citizenry and served for 24 years  Veterans and families would receive citizenship

9 Roman Provinces and Frontiers  Expansion into Germany  By 15 BCE, Roman troops crossed the Rhine River  By 9 BCE, they reached the Elbe in eastern Germany  Battle of Teutoburg Forest (9 CE)  Three Roman legions (XVII, XVIII and XIX) were massacred  Approximately 15,000-20,000 men died  After the defeat, Augustus changed his policy  Gave up his expansion efforts in Germany  Rhine was now a frontier border  Pax Romana (27 BCE-180 CE)  A period when the Empire itself was mostly untouched by warfare (excluding various revolts)

10  Rome’s Expansion from 14 CE to 117 CE

11 The Julio-Claudians (14-68 CE)  Julio-Claudians  All the rulers came from either the Julii or Claudii clans  They all came to power through indirect relations or adoption  Common traits  Expanded the empire and endorsed huge construction projects  Were hated by the Senatorial Order  Took over more responsibilities away from the senate  Introduced effective means of governing and protecting the empire  Were able to tie together all the inhabitants of Rome  Roughly 5 million people in the empire at this time

12  Tiberius  (14–37 CE)

13 Tiberius (14-37 CE)  Tiberius (14-37 CE)  Was known as an excellent general  Took the title princeps at age 56  He did not want it but the Senate convinced him  Pilny the Elder described him as "the gloomiest of men"  He was a rather dark and somber man  Characteristics of his reign  Gave power to the Senate  Faced troop revolts in Germany  Son was poisoned  Reacted with treason papers and executions  Finally withdrew from Rome

14  Caligula  (37-41 CE)

15 Caligula (37-41 CE)  Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (37-41 CE)  Acsended to the throne at the age of 25  Known as “Caligula” from a childhood nickname  Grandnephew of Tiberius and the great grandson of Augustus  At the early part of his reign, he was very popular  He gave the military bonuses  Put on huge festivals, including gladitorial bouts  Destroyed the treason papers and banned treason trials  In October 37, he became very ill  During this time, he accused his cousin, Tiberius Gemellus, of plotting against him and had him killed

16 Caligula (37-41 CE)  Over the course of his reign, Caligula was accused of:  Vicious cruelty  Incest with his sisters  Spending great deals of money on worthless projects  Dressed like various gods and wanted to be worshiped like one  Was not popular with the Senate or the Equestrian Order  Assassination (January 24, 41 CE)  Arranged by the Praetorian Guard  Caligula was stabbed 30 times  His wife and infant daughter were also killed

17  Claudius  (41-54 CE)

18 Claudius (41-54 CE)  Claudius (41-54 CE)  Was Caligula’s uncle  Last surviving male in his family  Took the title of princeps at the age of 50  Had not been encouraged to participate in politics  Had numerous physical disabilities  May have been either cerebral palsy or Tourette’s Syndrome  Was incredibly intelligent and would prove to be a good leader  Focus was to repair the damage done during Caligula’s reign

19 Claudius (41-54 CE)  Expanded the empire  In 43 CE, he oversaw the conquest of Britain  He also made provinces out of Thrace and Judea  Attempted to make the Senate more efficient  Removed numerous Senators from their positions  Wanted them to debate legislation put in front of them  In the end, all his did was anger many Senators  Made widespread legal reforms  He extended the terms of the court sessions  He even presided over many of the cases  He also issued numerous edicts throughout this reign

20 Claudius (41-54 CE)  Claudius was big on public works projects  He had two aqueducts built  He also expanded the system of roads and canals  Attempted coups  Over the course of his reign, there were a number of coups  Led to investigations and the execution of a number of Senators  Claudius died on October 13, 54 CE  May have been poisoned by his wife Agrippina to secure the throne for her son Nero  Could have just died of old age

21  Nero  (54-68 CE)

22 Nero (54-68 CE)  Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (54-68 CE)  Last of the Julio-Claudian dynasty  Was only 16 years old when he came to power  His mother Agrippina was Claudius’ fourth wife  Dominated by his mother  The early years of his reign were the good years  Gave the Senate more autonomy  Passed legislation was passed to keep public order and reform the treasury  This included the reduction of direct taxes  Capital punishment was outlawed  He also limited the amount of spectacles that took place

23 Nero (54-68 CE)  Breaking away  Nero tried to remove himself from his mother’s influence  Had numerous affairs against his mother’s wishes  She worried that if he divorced Octavia (Claudius’ daughter), he would lose legitimacy as emperor  Decline occurred after he discovered she was grooming his step-brother to become emperor  Killing mommy  First attempt was putting her on a collapsible ship  He then hired an assassin to kill her  He claimed that she was trying to overthrow him

24 Nero (54-68 CE)  New wife  Was able to now divorce his wife, Octavia  Had her executed on trumped up adultery charges  Married his lover, Poppaea Sabina  Nero was known for his excesses  He loved to go out drinking with his friends, create festivals based on horseracing, participate in orgies, and act and sing  With his mother gone, the excesses got worse  In 64 CE, he began performing publicly  The Roman population did not think highly of actors  They thought this behavior was too scandalous for an emperor

25 Nero (54-68 CE)  Military problems  Roman forces were having problems holding the frontier  Roman-Parthian War (58–63 CE)  Ended in a stalemate  Nero made this out to be a huge military victory  He was named imperator and had a huge Triumph for it  Boudicca’s Revolt (60-61 CE)  Revolt of the Britons led by Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni tribe  Had100,000 people to fight against the Romans  The revolt was eventually put down, with one battle resulting in the death of almost 80,000 Britons

26 Nero (54-68 CE)  Great Fire (July 64 CE)  Ravaged Rome for six days  Nero supposed dressed up in costume and sang “The Sack of Ilium” during the fire  He accused Christians of starting the fire  Ordered them to either be thrown to the dogs or crucified  Golden Palace  Built this palace on the site where the fire took place  Rumor spread that Nero started the fire so he could use the land more easily  Nero also built the Colossus Neronis  A 120 ft. bronze statue of Nero which overlooked the city

27 Nero (54-68 CE)  Rome’s economy was declining rapidly  There were major food shortages  By this point, Nero was avoiding his public duties  Was spending his time and wealth in pursuit of the arts  Also became paranoid and vicious  Executed numerous associates, including capable generals  In 67 CE, Nero left for Greece  He planned on participating in the Olympics to illustrate Roman greatness  He also spent time singing and acting there

28 Nero (54-68 CE)  Returned to Rome in 68 CE with a Triumph  Was an athletic Triumph to celebrate his successes in Greece  Annoyed the upper-classes as it broke with tradition  The masses thought he had gone insane  Losing loyalty of the military  Many generals and provincial governors withdrew their oaths of allegiance to Nero  The Senate declared Nero to be a “public enemy”  They ordered him to be flogged to death  Nero committed suicide by stabbing himself in the throat  His last words were “Qualis artifex pereo" ("What an artist the world loses in me")

29  Rome c. 69 CE

30 Year of the Four Emperors (68-69 CE)  With Nero’s death, Rome was plunged into civil war  From June 68 to December 69, there were four different emperors  Four strongest generals fought for control of the empire  Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian  Characteristics  Generals used army to seize power  Executed opposition  Undid positive reforms of Nero’s reign

31  Vespasian  (69-79 CE)

32 Vespasian (69-79 CE)  Titus Flavius Vespasianus (69-79 CE)  He was from the Equestrian Order  He had been a brilliant military general  Senate named him Emperor on December 22, 69 CE  His reign began the short lived Flavian dynasty  Characteristics  Wanted to restore authority back to the position of emperor  Got rid of the republican legitimacy  Solidified the administrative system  Troops were returned to permanent posts  Also, they stopped using the title of princeps and replaced it with the common use of the title of imperator

33 Vespasian (69-79 CE)  Vespasian had a lot to fix when he took the throne  Restored loyalty and stability of the military  Expanded Roman presence in Britain and Judea  Ended the lavish spending that occurred since Nero’s reign  He needed to restock the treasury so he raised taxes  Vespasian also wanted to emulate Augustus’ reign  He reworked the Senatorial and Equestrian Orders so that it was filled with those worthy of the positions  In Iberia, he granted “Latin Rights” to many communities  He also paid state salaries to Greek and Roman rhetoric tutors  Even entertainers received salaries during his rule

34 Vespasian (69-79 CE)  Flavian Amphitheatre  It was more commonly known as the Colosseum because is was so close to the Colossus of Nero  Vespasian designed it as a gift to the people  It was large enough to seat 45,000 spectators with standing room for an additional 5,000  It was not completed until the reign of Titus and supposedly cost 40 trillion sesterces  He died on June 24, 79 of a fever  His last words were jokingly “Vae, puto deus fio” (“Oh dear, I think I’m turning into a god”)

35  Flavian Amphitheatre (aka the Colosseum)

36  Titus  (79-81 CE)

37 Titus (79-81 CE)  Titus Flavius Vespasianus (79-81 CE)  He was Vespasian’s son and made a clean move into the position of emperor  Major disasters during his reign  Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 CE which destroyed a number of Italian cities, including Pompeii  Large fire that destroyed important sections of Rome over three days in 80 CE  Then a massive epidemic plagued Rome in 80 BCE  Titus spent a great deal of time on the relief efforts  He died on September 1, 81 CE  Last words: “I have only done one thing wrong”  Could not stop his brother Domitian from becoming emperor

38  Domitian  (81-96 CE)

39 Domitian (81-96 CE)  Titus Flavius Domitianus (81-96 CE)  Youth was focused on his military career  Praetorian Guard named him emperor  Ruled as a ruthless dictator  Ancient historians compare him to Caligula and Nero  Ended all semblance of republican authority in the empire  Told the Senate that they no longer held any power  Used Freemen and Equestrians in high government positions  Saw himself as the benevolent despot and was ruling with divine authority  Believed that he was in charge of every aspect of the Roman empire

40 Domitian (81-96 CE)  Focused on securing the borders of the empire  Secured the Danube River in Germany  Took the title of Germanicus and wore the clothing of a victorious general to all the Senate meetings  Built the Limes Germanicus, a series of forts and roads along the Rhine River as a defensive line  Named himself Censor in 85 CE  Gave him the power to control public morality  Outlawed public prostitution  Ended bribery in the courts and corruption in the provinces  Tried and executed Vestal Virgins who were not actually virgins  Domitian was known for his sexual affairs and sex addiction

41 Domitian (81-96 CE)  Was very cruel to Christians and Jews  Revolt in Germany (January 89 CE)  Started by the governor of Germany  The rebellion was put down in less than a month and all supporters were executed  Led to treason trials where many members of the Senatorial class were killed  This atmosphere of fear continued on for a number of years  Assassination (September 18, 96 CE)  Included leading officials of the military, his own wife and court chamberlain

42 “Five Good Emperors” ( CE)  Rome entered a period of peace and prosperity with the “Five Good Emperors”  During this time period, the emperors:  Cooperated with the Senate (in the beginning)  Treated the ruling class with respect  Ended arbitrary executions  Maintained peace throughout the empire  Pushed through beneficial domestic policies  Were known for their tolerance and diplomacy  Increased their power at the expense of the Senate

43 “Five Good Emperors” ( CE)  There is the creation of an imperial civil service  The emperor would appoint officials who would take over the actual running of the government  Most of these people came from the Equestrian  This civil service was able to expand into areas that previous emperors had not had the power to control  The Alimenta was also set up during this period  It was a state program to provide funds to assist poor parents in raising and educating their children  They saw this a creating a large pool of young men in Italy who would be useful in the military

44  Nerva  (96-98 CE)

45 Nerva (96-98 CE)  Marcus Cocceius Nerva – (96-98 CE)  Appointed by the Senate the same day Domitian was killed  Unsure why he was chosen; he was a skilled administrator but was not well known  May be because he was old and had no children  Placed damnatio memoriae on Domitian  Nerva gained support of the Senate  Ended treason trials and granted amnesty to those in exile  Also gained support of the masses  Gave money away to the Roman populace  Gave land grants to the poor  Modified the taxes to ease the burden on the hardest hit

46 Nerva (96-98 CE)  Had problems gaining support of the military  They still held loyalty to Domitian  In 97 CE, the Praetorian Guard lay siege to the imperial palace  Took Nerva hostage and forced him to hand over those involved in the murder of Domitian  Was also forced to chose Marcus Ulpius Traianus (aka Trajan) as his heir  Trajan was given the title of Caesar and a consulship  The adoption of Trajan became a precedent for the Five Good Emperors  Nerva died of a stroke in January 98 CE

47  Trajan  ( CE)

48 Trajan ( CE)  Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus ( CE)  Had been a distinguished solider and general  Had been consul in 91 and had a strong political career as well  First emperor born outside of Italy (Spain)  Set up the first Roman military secret service  Done not only for the protection of the empire but himself as well  Used frumentarii (couriers involved with the grain supply) to act as agents for him  Created a new bodyguard of equites singulares (cavalry)  They first numbered 500 but were increased to 1,000  Included foreigners and auxiliaries as a sign of trust in them

49 Trajan ( CE)  Trajan did believe heavily in expansion of the empire  He extended Roman rule into modern day Romania, the Sinai Peninsula, and Mesopotamia  His conquests that mark the peak of Roman expansion  Allowed for toleration of Christians  This was as long as they did not practice in public  Trajan was also heavily involved in building projects  Trajan’s Forum and Trajan’s Marketplace  He improved the harbor of the Tiber River  He also expanded Appia Way to go right through the city  He died on August 9, 117 CE of edema

50  Extent of Trajan’s conquests (117 CE)

51  Hadrian  ( CE)

52 Hadrian ( CE)  Publius Aelius Hadrianus ( CE)  There is some doubt as to whether or not Trajan actually adopted him  Was a skilled politician and military commander  Secured the throne due to the support of the army  He believed that the empire was overextended  Withdrew from indefensible regions like Mesopotamia  Focused on a defensive frontier policy  He reinforced the fortifications along the Rhine and Danube  He also built “Hadrian’s Wall,” an 80 mile long defensive wall in northern Britain

53 Hadrian ( CE)  Traveled throughout the empire  Strength of the empire was based on the strength of its infrastructure  Inspected the troops and helped oversee public works projects  Gave him a chance to see what was really going on  Hadrian was considered to be a humanist in his beliefs  Made the legal code more humane, including the abolition of torture  He issued edicts to help the poor  He was also known for his building projects  Rebuilt the Pantheon which burned down in 80 CE  He died in 138 after a long illness

54  Antonius Pius  ( CE)

55 Antonius Pius ( CE)  Antoninus Pius ( CE)  Skilled politician but had no real military experience  Most peaceful period of the Pax Romana  Still some uneasiness around the frontiers  Built the Antonine Wall in Britain to deal with disturbances  Spent most of his reign in Rome  Spent money on public works projects but not in excess  He had his daughter, Faustina, marry Marcus Aurelius  He then adopted Marcus as his heir to the throne  He died on March 12, 161 of natural causes  Last word: "aequanimitas" (“equanimity”)

56  Hadrian’s and Antonine Wall

57  Marcus Aurelius  ( CE)

58 Marcus Aurelius ( CE)  Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus ( CE)  “Marcus Aurelius the Wise”  He was well educated in both rhetoric and stoic philosophy  Was the type of philosopher-king envisioned by Plato  Meditations  12-volume work which expressed his stoic philosophy  Collection of quotes illustrating his belief in stoicism and ways to improve his life  “Men exist for each other; then either improve them or put up with them”

59 Marcus Aurelius ( CE)  His reign dealt with some major problems  War with Parthia  Went from CE  Antonine Plague ( CE)  Brought back with troops returning home from Parthia  Historians believe it was either smallpox or measles  At one point was killing over 2,000 people a day  Germanic attacks ( CE)  Germanic tribes attacked Roman forces across the Danube River  No large military presence there  Could only hold off the attacks

60 Marcus Aurelius ( CE)  Revolt of Cassius Avidius (175 CE)  He was the governor of Syria and a distinguished military general  Named himself emperor due to rumors of Aurelius’ death  Aurelius went to Syria with troops  By the time he got there, the revolt was put down and Cassius was dead  Unlike his predecessors, Aurelius did not punish Cassius’ family or supporters  With the east settled, Aurelius had to turn his attention back to the north  He returned to fight the Germans

61 Marcus Aurelius ( CE)  Natural disasters during Aurelius’ reign  There was constant flooding of the Tiber River  There was also a famine taking place  All of this, along with the epidemic, gave the citizens of Rome a nervous feeling about their future  Aurelius died on March 17, 180 CE  It is believed he died of the smallpox  Unlike his predecessors, he did not adopt a son  Instead, he had chosen his son Commodus as his successor  He named Commodus “Caesar” in 166 and co-emperor in 177

62  Marcus Aurelius coinage

63 The Peak of the Empire  During the 2 nd century, the Roman Empire was at its peak  It was larger than both the Persian or Alexander’s empire  It was approximately 3.5 million square miles  Had a population estimated at 50 million  More and more of the population was also given citizenship  Not until 212 when emperor Caracalla gave citizenship to all free members of the empire  During this time, the Roman army grew in size  It was responsible for the defense of the empire’s borders  In 14 CE, the army consisted of only 25 legions  By Trajan’s reign, it was increased to 30  Larger percentage of the army came from non-Italians

64 The Peak of the Empire  The army also acted as a mechanism for social mobility  Non-citizens would be recruited into auxiliary units  At retirement, would be granted citizenship  There was movement inside the ranks as well  Rank of Centurion was considered high-rank  They got important government jobs after they retired  The army also acted as an agent of Romanization  Military camps helped to spread the Roman language and culture  Brought their wives and slaves who would encourage trade and local production to meet the needs of the army  Towns and villages would spring up near army bases or nearby colonies

65 The Peak of the Empire  This period was also very prosperous  Peace and a single currency helped the economy  Trade expanded not only within the Empire but outside  Goods from as far away as China were traded  Manufacturing went through a boom as well  This was due to the increase in trade and a growing demand  Areas became known for their specific industries such as bronze in Capua and pottery in Etruria  Agriculture remained the primary occupation  Latifundias still dominated agriculture, especially in Italy  They used slave labor or sharecroppers  Peasant farms did persist and formed the backbone of the economy

66 The Peak of the Empire  Roman law and culture also changed with the times  Jurists spent a great deal of time collecting and compiling basic legal principles  Many laws were codified  Growth of a concept of natural rights  During this time standards are set such as “innocent until proven guilty” and allowing the guilty to defend himself  The Paterfamilias was no longer the absolute authority over his family  He no longer was allowed to sell his children into slavery or put them to death  He also lost full authority over his wife

67 The Peak of the Empire  Women also gained more rights  They were allowed to inherit and own property and also run their own businesses  They were also no longer required to have a guardian in legal matters (e.g., she could draft her own will)  Still low birthrates in upper-classes  Even with laws promoting childbearing, they continued to use contraception or abortion to prevent pregnancies  Men could purchase a goat’s bladder as a primitive condom, but it was very expensive  Women would use oils, ointments, and soft wool as contraception  Abortion was done with either through surgery or drugs

68 The Peak of the Empire  Slaves were numerous during the early empire years  As the empire expanded, this led to an increase in available slaves  They were used in many different situations from footmen to servants to artisans to such high-status jobs as business managers or held positions in the government  Once the empire began focusing on a more defensive policy, the number of available slaves declined  The city of Rome was the heart and soul of the empire  The city was crowded and very diverse  A police force was created to keep order inside the city

69 The Peak of the Empire  Government took responsibility of feeding the population of Rome  Needed approximately 6 million sacks of grain each year  The city also provided entertainment to its citizens  More than 1/3 of the year was spent in celebrating religious festivals  Gladiatorial shows took place  Helped keep the people’s mind off of the harsh lives they led  The living conditions between the rich and the poor were drastically different  The wealthy lived in grand villas made of stone  The poor lived in insulae, apartment buildings made of wood and were poorly constructed with no heat or indoor plumbing

70  Commodus  ( )

71 Commodus ( )  Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus ( )  Was Marcus Aurelius’ biological son  In 177, Commodus was given the title of Augustus and began co-ruling with Marcus Aurelius  When Aurelius died in 180, Commodus became sole ruler of Rome at the age of 19  Commodus was a cruel man and an incompetent ruler  He had no interest in ruling the Empire  Instead placed that power into the hands of his favorites  More interested in athletics and watching sports such as horse racing and gladiatorial combat

72 Commodus ( )  Beginning in 182, there were numerous conspiracies against him  One assassination was even orchestrated by his own sister  It sparked him to play a greater role in governing the Empire  However, he had no knack for ruling  As his reign progressed, Commodus became more infatuated with himself as being almost god-like  He would participate in gladiatorial combat dressed as Hercules to declare his physical prowess  He even considered himself as the new Romulus of Rome  Many were appalled by the Emperor’s behavior

73 Commodus ( )  In 191, Rome was damaged by an extensive fire  This gave Commodus the opportunity to redesign Rome  In 192, he renamed Rome Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana  He also renamed all the legions to Commodianae  The months of the calendar were changed to reflect his new full name: Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus Herculeus Romanus Exsuperatorius Amazonius Invictus Felix Pius  He also decided that he wanted to be addressed not only by the title of emperor but of gladiator as well  On December 31, 192 he was poisoned by his mistress  She and a couple of politicians had been proscribed by Commodus after telling him to not take the title of gladiator

74 Year of Five Emperors  With the death of Commodus, the Senate issued a de facto damnatio memoriae (public enemy) against Commodus  All of the changes he had made were undone  During 193, there were a total of five emperors  Resembled a civil war as various factions fought for control  This instability affected the entire empire  This was the first time in the history of the empire that it had such problems as collecting taxes, protecting its frontiers, and feeding its people

75  Septimius Severus  ( )

76 Terrible Third Century  Stability was finally restored when Septimius Severus used his legions to seize power in 193  He in turn created a military monarchy  Began the period of the Severan Rulers ( )  Military was treated very well  Emperors knew the value of the army and mistrusted politicians  The size of the army was increased along with the pay  Military officers were appointed to high government positions  However, this meant that the emperors had to keep the army appeased to keep their power

77 Terrible Third Century  Negative side effects  Troops became much too spoiled and lost their military readiness  Also, the army gained power at the cost of the emperor  All five of Severus’ successors were murdered  This included his own two sons  In 235, Rome fell into military anarchy  It was a period of civil war that lasted for 50 years  It was characterized by people bribing the military to secure political power  During this time there were 22 emperors  Only two of them died of natural causes

78 Terrible Third Century  There were a series of invasions into the Empire  In the east, the Persians made major headway into the Empire  The barbaric tribes to the north invaded as well  The Goths took the Balkans, Greece and Anatolia  The Franks invaded into Gaul and Spain  During the reign of Aurelian ( ), Rome was able to restore most of its boundaries  The only territory the Romans gave up was the province of Dancia along the Danube  The Romans called him the “restorer of the world”

79 Terrible Third Century  Near economic disaster  All of the invasions, civil wars, and the plague almost brought about an economic collapse of the Empire  During this time, both trade and the development of industry went into a decline  Serious drop in population  Roughly 1/3 died due to plague or warfare  This led to a massive shortage of manpower which hurt both the economy and the military  The hardest sector hit was farm production

80 Terrible Third Century  The monetary system was also plagued with problems  The coinage was losing value and there was serious inflation  People stopped circulating gold and silver coins  Denarius was debased to ½ of its value during the 1 st century  Bartering system began to replace the coinage system in trade and sales  Military also suffered during the economic downturn  More difficult not only to enlist soldiers but to pay them  Began hiring members from the barbarian tribes as mercenaries  Mercenaries had no loyalty nor did they understand the system under which the Empire ran

81  Probus  ( )

82 Rome’s Collapse  There have been numerous theories as to why Rome collapsed  Christianity’s spiritual kingdom undermined Roman military virtues and patriotism  Traditional Roman values declined with the emergence of more and more non-Italians  Lead poisoning through the use of lead pipes and cups  Plague killing 1/10 th of the population  Rome failed to technologically advance due to their dependence on slavery  Unable to achieve a workable political system

83 Rome’s Collapse  Other factors:  The western empire could not defend itself  Armies were difficult to move in an emergency  Tax levels were already high so support of the army was made more difficult  Low civilian morale  Bureaucratic regime inspired little loyalty  Economic consequences  Western empire had been characterized by mass produced, low cost, high quality consumer goods  By 500, the economy was shattered  Standards of craftsmanship declined

84 Rome’s Collapse  Survival of Roman life  Tax, legal and administrative systems survived  Aristocrats continued to dominate civic life  The survival of Roman culture  The survival of the eastern empire  Greater wealth to maintain military forces  Cities remained powerful centers of industry and trade  Smaller borders and its armies were better supplied  Would survive for another 1,000 years, largely free of invasion


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