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The Great Depression and the New Deal 1933-1939 The country needs and…demands bold, persistent experimentation. It is common sense to take a method and.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great Depression and the New Deal 1933-1939 The country needs and…demands bold, persistent experimentation. It is common sense to take a method and."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great Depression and the New Deal The country needs and…demands bold, persistent experimentation. It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something. Franklin Roosevelt, 1932

2 The Election of million Americans unemployed (1932) 11 million Americans unemployed (1932) Republicans re-nominated Herbert Hoover at convention in Chicago Republicans re-nominated Herbert Hoover at convention in Chicago Republican Platform- praised Republican anti-depression policies, “sort of” promised to end prohibition Republican Platform- praised Republican anti-depression policies, “sort of” promised to end prohibition Democrats met in Chicago (June 1932) nominated Franklin D. Roosevelt Democrats met in Chicago (June 1932) nominated Franklin D. Roosevelt Democrat Platform- end prohibition, linked depression to Hoover & Republicans, balance budget, social programs & economic reforms Democrat Platform- end prohibition, linked depression to Hoover & Republicans, balance budget, social programs & economic reforms

3 Franklin Roosevelt (FDR) Born to a wealthy family- NY Born to a wealthy family- NY 5 TH cousin to Theodore Roosevelt 5 TH cousin to Theodore Roosevelt graduated Harvard graduated Harvard Served NY legislature Served NY legislature Governor of NY Governor of NY Nominated VP (1920 with James Cox) LOST! Nominated VP (1920 with James Cox) LOST! Assistant Sec. of Navy- just like TR! Assistant Sec. of Navy- just like TR! Struck with Polio- wore metal braces on legs Struck with Polio- wore metal braces on legs FDR’S WIFE- Eleanor Roosevelt (FDR’s distant cousin!) FDR’S WIFE- Eleanor Roosevelt (FDR’s distant cousin!) Roosevelt commanded public media- deep concern for the “forgotten man”– seen as a traitor to his class Roosevelt commanded public media- deep concern for the “forgotten man”– seen as a traitor to his class Accepted his party nomination –in person (a 1st – set a precedent).--- Promised a “new deal” for America Accepted his party nomination –in person (a 1st – set a precedent).--- Promised a “new deal” for America

4 The Election Campaign 1932 Democrats (FDR)- attacked Republicans FDR presented himself as vibrant (“Roosevelt is Robust”) FDR presented himself as vibrant (“Roosevelt is Robust”) Preached the New Deal for forgotten man (remained vague on details) Preached the New Deal for forgotten man (remained vague on details) Speeches written by members of “the Brain Trust” (young college professors who later developed new deal programs Speeches written by members of “the Brain Trust” (young college professors who later developed new deal programs Promised “bold experimentation” Promised “bold experimentation” Theme Song- “Happy Days Are Here Again” Theme Song- “Happy Days Are Here Again”

5 Hoover’s Campaign Remained in the Whitehouse at first- working through lunch etc. Remained in the Whitehouse at first- working through lunch etc. Supporters- “the Worst is Past” “It Might Have Been Worse” Supporters- “the Worst is Past” “It Might Have Been Worse” Hoover took to the stump—faith in American enterprise, individual initiative, urged support for Hawley-Smoot Tariff Hoover took to the stump—faith in American enterprise, individual initiative, urged support for Hawley-Smoot Tariff

6 FDR Wins

7 How did FDR win? Dissatisfaction with Hoover- Change!!! Dissatisfaction with Hoover- Change!!! The New Deal Coalition- black Americans (esp. in Northern cities) abandoned the Republican Party & voted for FDR The New Deal Coalition- black Americans (esp. in Northern cities) abandoned the Republican Party & voted for FDR Black voters joined white working class, farmers & others to elect FDR Black voters joined white working class, farmers & others to elect FDR Inauguration day- March 4,1933- speech attacked “moneyed interests”- vowed war on depression, “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself” Inauguration day- March 4,1933- speech attacked “moneyed interests”- vowed war on depression, “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself” Hoover believed that the uncertainty & fear surrounding FDR’S victory made the depression worse! Hoover believed that the uncertainty & fear surrounding FDR’S victory made the depression worse!

8 FDR & THE 3 R’s New Deal Programs had 3 goals: New Deal Programs had 3 goals: Short-Term (1 st 2 years) Relief- FDR favored direct relief to individuals Relief- FDR favored direct relief to individuals Recovery- use deficit-spending on public works to revive economy (short range)-1 st 2 years Recovery- use deficit-spending on public works to revive economy (short range)-1 st 2 years Long Term Reform- (Long Term) – reform current & past abuses that had brought on the Depression. Reform- (Long Term) – reform current & past abuses that had brought on the Depression. * Restructure capitalism– not replace it 1. The Bank Holiday- FDR closed the banks on his first full day in office (March 6-10) Government examiners would inspect banks- banks reopen if financially sound Government examiners would inspect banks- banks reopen if financially sound when banks reopened- deposits outnumbered withdrawals (Emergency Banking Relief Act 1933) when banks reopened- deposits outnumbered withdrawals (Emergency Banking Relief Act 1933)

9 The New Deal- The 1 st Hundred Days FDR called a joint session of Congress (majority Democrat) FDR called a joint session of Congress (majority Democrat) 1 st Hundred Days- members passed a large number of bills & programs (many old progressive ideas) 1 st Hundred Days- members passed a large number of bills & programs (many old progressive ideas) Old Progressive ideas: unemployment insurance, old age insurance (SS), min. wage, restriction of child labor, conserve & develop natural resources Old Progressive ideas: unemployment insurance, old age insurance (SS), min. wage, restriction of child labor, conserve & develop natural resources Congress gave some of its legislative power to the President- later the SC will rule against New Deal programs based on this Congress gave some of its legislative power to the President- later the SC will rule against New Deal programs based on this **AP Test writers- want you to know which programs were not part of New Deal also.

10 Banking & Monetary Recovery & Relief Emergency Banking Relief Act (1933)- gave president power to regulate bank transactions & foreign exchange & reopen solvent banks. Emergency Banking Relief Act (1933)- gave president power to regulate bank transactions & foreign exchange & reopen solvent banks. Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act- FDIC introduced (originally insured deposits up to $5000)- virtually ends chronic bank failures. Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act- FDIC introduced (originally insured deposits up to $5000)- virtually ends chronic bank failures FDR took US off gold standard = “managed currency”= inflation= relieve debtor’s & stimulate new production. (US purchases gold for $35 oz up from $21 in 1933) FDR took US off gold standard = “managed currency”= inflation= relieve debtor’s & stimulate new production. (US purchases gold for $35 oz up from $21 in 1933) Feb FDR returned US to gold standard for international trade only= gold coins= collectors items Feb FDR returned US to gold standard for international trade only= gold coins= collectors items

11 Job Creation FDR uses “fireside chats” to encourage & inform the citizens. FDR uses “fireside chats” to encourage & inform the citizens. FDR – urged “pump priming” – government $$ assistance to encourage industrial recovery. FDR – urged “pump priming” – government $$ assistance to encourage industrial recovery. 1. Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC)- young men hired by US to help with reforestation, firefighting, flood control, swamp drainage– sent money home. Helped conserve natural resources & human resources Helped conserve natural resources & human resources 2. Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)- $3 Billion to states for public works– put adults to work!

12 CCC Created in April Within 4 months, 1300 CCC camps were in operation. 300,000 men in 1933 between ages 18 and 25 Signed up for 6 months and made $30.00 a month and 1941 over 3,000,000 men served in the CCC. GoalGoal: Keep teenage young men off the street and away from the job market. Develop job skills and improve environment

13 Planted trees, built public parks, drained swamps to fight malaria, restocked rivers with fish, worked on flood control projects and a range of other work that helped to conserve the environment.

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17 Housing Relief Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- $$MILLIONS to farmers to meet mortgages. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- $$MILLIONS to farmers to meet mortgages. Home Owner’s Loan Corporation (HOLC)- Refinance mortgages on non-farm home loans (helped about 1 million). Home Owner’s Loan Corporation (HOLC)- Refinance mortgages on non-farm home loans (helped about 1 million). Job Creation (late)- Civil Works Administration (CWA)- under auspices of FERA both HEADED BY HARRY HOPKINS; provided jobs during winter of 1933 to 10’s of thousands (leaf raking)- highly criticized!

18 st Hundred Days ($13 Billion Dollars) st Hundred Days ($13 Billion Dollars) Develop a poor section of the Southeast U.S.Develop a poor section of the Southeast U.S. Stimulate the economy and produce cheap electricity.Stimulate the economy and produce cheap electricity. Control floods, planting new forests.Control floods, planting new forests. set up to test fairness of utility rates. set up to test fairness of utility rates. TVA  94 percent of property owners and 98 percent of tenants did not have electricity.  30 percent of property owners and 41 percent of tenants had no toilet facilities whatsoever

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20  65 percent of property owners and 78 percent of tenants had to travel at least 300 yards to get their household water.  8 percent of property owners and 3 percent of tenants owned radios (usually battery operated).  8 percent of property owners and 3 percent of tenants owned radios (usually battery operated).  39 percent of property owners and 23 percent of tenants had phonographs (including record players that were operated with a hand crank). TVA

21  50 percent of property owners and 25 percent of tenants read newspapers.  50 percent of property owners and 25 percent of tenants read newspapers.  26 percent of property owners and 16 percent of tenants owned automobiles.  26 percent of property owners and 16 percent of tenants owned automobiles.  7 percent of property owners and 4 percent of tenants owned trucks. TVA

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24 TVA MAP

25 TVA CRITICISM

26 Critics of the New Deal Critics on the right & left found the New Deal lacking Critics on the right & left found the New Deal lacking Unemployment was still high after the programs passed in the 1 st 100 days Unemployment was still high after the programs passed in the 1 st 100 days 1. Father Charles Coughlin- Catholic priest (Mich.) with a radio show (40 million fans); wanted “social justice”. 2. Senator Huey P. Long (Louisiana)- “Share Our Wealth” Program; “Make Every Man a King”– every family would get $5000 (by taking money from rich) Threatened to challenge FDR for presidential nomination in 1936– but was killed by an assassin. Threatened to challenge FDR for presidential nomination in 1936– but was killed by an assassin.

27 Critics of the New Deal 3. Dr. Francis Townsend- retired doctor; supported by senior citizens. Called for old age help- $200 month to citizens 60 years old or older to be spent within a month= later FDR & Congress will create Social Security based on the idea. Called for old age help- $200 month to citizens 60 years old or older to be spent within a month= later FDR & Congress will create Social Security based on the idea Works Progress Administration (WPA)- employment for useful projects (brought on by criticism); headed by Harry Hopkins. $ 11 Billion on 1000’s of public buildings, bridges, roads (9 million people employed over 8 years). $ 11 Billion on 1000’s of public buildings, bridges, roads (9 million people employed over 8 years). Federal Number 1- part of WPA; employed actors, writers, musicians– highly criticized program. Federal Number 1- part of WPA; employed actors, writers, musicians– highly criticized program. * Sent writers to collect oral histories– slave narratives!! Etc.

28 Works Progress Administration (WPA), the New Deals main relief agency. People employed by the WPA at its peak was more than 3 million 2,500 hospitals 5,900 schools 13,000 playgrounds 125,000 public buildings wpa

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32 Women & the New Deal Secretary of Labor- Francis Perkins; 1 st woman cabinet member in the US. Secretary of Labor- Francis Perkins; 1 st woman cabinet member in the US. Mary McLeod Bethune- director of Office of Minority Affairs- highest ranking African-American woman. Mary McLeod Bethune- director of Office of Minority Affairs- highest ranking African-American woman. Margaret Meade- ( ) anthropologist; helped popularize cultural anthropology. Margaret Meade- ( ) anthropologist; helped popularize cultural anthropology.

33 New DealOne of the most important features of the New Deal Established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and employer. Old age insurance Protect Americans who were unable to support themselves. Unemployment compensation Compensation to disabled workers and assistance to widows and children

34 Industry & Labor 1. National Recovery Administration (NRA)- part of the NIRA: combined immediate relief with long range recovery; industries work out “fair competition” set wages & hours worked. Unions granted right to organize, collective bargaining –through union reps! Unions granted right to organize, collective bargaining –through union reps! Yellow dog contracts forbidden Yellow dog contracts forbidden Restrictions on child labor Restrictions on child labor “blue eagle" program- “blue eagle" program NRA declared unconstitutional by SC; *Schechter “sick chicken” case NRA declared unconstitutional by SC; *Schechter “sick chicken” case.

35 National Recovery ActAlso called the National Recovery Act. Helped businesses organize codes setting prices and minimum wage. Put people back to work at decent jobs, wages and working conditions. Businesses were not forced to join this.

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38 Industry & Labor 2. Public Works Administration (PWA)- ALSO PART OF THE NIRA: Industrial recovery & unemployment relief. Headed by Harold Ickes Headed by Harold Ickes $4 Billion spent over 4 years= 34,000 projects (public buildings, highways, parkways) $4 Billion spent over 4 years= 34,000 projects (public buildings, highways, parkways) Grand Coulee Dam Grand Coulee Dam

39 Repeal of Prohibition Gave federal government extra revenue Gave federal government extra revenue 1 st 100 days- legalized wine & beer 1 st 100 days- legalized wine & beer officially repealed by 21 st Amendment (1933) officially repealed by 21 st Amendment (1933)

40 Paying Farmers not to farm Farmers suffered from low prices & overproduction Farmers suffered from low prices & overproduction Mortgages foreclosed – corn burned as fuel, destruction of crops to drive up prices Mortgages foreclosed – corn burned as fuel, destruction of crops to drive up prices 1. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) used artificial scarcity; est. “parity prices” (same real value as in ). US gov’t paid farmers to reduce crop acreage US gov’t paid farmers to reduce crop acreage To pay for the program- Tax processors of farm products= consumers pay higher prices for consumers (TAXING ONE GROUP & GIVING MONEY TO ANOTHER) To pay for the program- Tax processors of farm products= consumers pay higher prices for consumers (TAXING ONE GROUP & GIVING MONEY TO ANOTHER) Effect- raised farm incomes Effect- raised farm incomes Criticized for waste– destruction of needed crops & animals Criticized for waste– destruction of needed crops & animals SC declared it unconstitutional PART ABOUT COLLECTING TAX FROM PROCESSORS TO PAY FARMERS. SC declared it unconstitutional PART ABOUT COLLECTING TAX FROM PROCESSORS TO PAY FARMERS.

41 Paying Farmers not to Farm 2. Soil Conservation & Domestic Allotment Act (1936)- caused farmers to withdraw acreage from production & plant soil saving crops like soybeans Second AAA- continued conservation payments; acreage restrictions on specific crops= “parity payments” * NO TAXATION OF PROCESSORS TO PAY FARMERS Farmers got fairer prices & bigger share of national income Farmers got fairer prices & bigger share of national income

42 The Dust Bowl Causes: over production in the 1920’s (over plowing, dry farming techniques), drought of Causes: over production in the 1920’s (over plowing, dry farming techniques), drought of Areas affected- eastern Colorado to western Missouri; Oklahoma & Arkansas most affected! Areas affected- eastern Colorado to western Missouri; Oklahoma & Arkansas most affected! In 5 years- 350,000 Okies & Arkies moved to California In 5 years- 350,000 Okies & Arkies moved to California John Steinbeck- The Grapes of Wrath- John Steinbeck- The Grapes of Wrath- 1.Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Bill- suspension of foreclosures on farms for 3 years. (1935) 2. Resettlement Administration- remove near-farmless farmers to better land. * CCC planted more than 200 million trees on prairies.

43 Reforming Bankers & Business 1. Federal Securities Act “Truth in Securities Act” (1 st 100 days)- required promoters to swear to the soundness of stocks & bonds Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)- A watchdog for the stock market. (still exists). 3. The Public Utility Holding Company Act (1935)- “death sentence” for the utility holding company unless deemed useful economically.

44 The New Deal & Labor After the Supreme Court axed the “blue eagle”- Congress wanted to ensure protection of labor. After the Supreme Court axed the “blue eagle”- Congress wanted to ensure protection of labor. 1. *The Wagner (National) Labor Relations Act (1935)- asserted the right to labor to organize & bargain collectively (with its own reps). Unskilled workers began to organize= John L. Lewis (United Mine Workers)= formed Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) WITHIN THE AFL. (AFL wanted to organize according to skill & trade) Unskilled workers began to organize= John L. Lewis (United Mine Workers)= formed Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) WITHIN THE AFL. (AFL wanted to organize according to skill & trade) AFL – suspended CIO UNIONS associated with AFL AFL – suspended CIO UNIONS associated with AFL Lewis & CIO- moved into the auto industry (used “sit-down” strike)= General Motors Sit Down Strike Lewis & CIO- moved into the auto industry (used “sit-down” strike)= General Motors Sit Down Strike GM- RECOGNIZED CIO AS SOLE BARGAINING AGENT GM- RECOGNIZED CIO AS SOLE BARGAINING AGENT 2. Fair Labor Standards Act (1938)- set up min. wage (40 cents/hour) & max. hours (40 hours per week); outlawed child labor (under 16 & 18 if dangerous) Excluded blacks, agricultural workers, women, Mexican-Americans Excluded blacks, agricultural workers, women, Mexican-Americans Labor organization boomed= supported FDR & DEMS Labor organization boomed= supported FDR & DEMS CIO broke with AFL COMPLETELY= 1940= 4 MILLION STRONG (INCLUDING 200,000 BLACKS) CIO broke with AFL COMPLETELY= 1940= 4 MILLION STRONG (INCLUDING 200,000 BLACKS) CIO- FAVORED ORAGNIZATION OF ALL WORKLERS IN A PARTICULAR INDUSTRY. CIO- FAVORED ORAGNIZATION OF ALL WORKLERS IN A PARTICULAR INDUSTRY.

45 Criticisms of the New Deal Waste, incompetence, confusion, cross-purposes, graft Waste, incompetence, confusion, cross-purposes, graft Employment of Communists, leftist professors Employment of Communists, leftist professors FDR accused of being too cozy with Jewish interests (“RosenField”) (“The Jew Deal”) FDR accused of being too cozy with Jewish interests (“RosenField”) (“The Jew Deal”) Growth of the national government- Federal government became the single largest business Growth of the national government- Federal government became the single largest business Growth of the national debt- to $ 40,440, 000,000 by Growth of the national debt- to $ 40,440, 000,000 by Class warfare- “Why soak the successful?” Class warfare- “Why soak the successful?” FDR’s court packing scheme & purging of Congress (“one man super government”) FDR’s court packing scheme & purging of Congress (“one man super government”)

46 1936 Election Democrats re-nominated FDR on New Deal Programs Democrats re-nominated FDR on New Deal Programs Republicans nominated Alfred M. Landon (MODERATE); Platform condemned New Deal deficit & waste Republicans nominated Alfred M. Landon (MODERATE); Platform condemned New Deal deficit & waste Key Republican backers- Hoover & the Liberty League (wealthy conservatives bound to fight against New Deal Socialism) Key Republican backers- Hoover & the Liberty League (wealthy conservatives bound to fight against New Deal Socialism) Landon carried only Vermont & Maine Landon carried only Vermont & Maine Democrats retained majorities in Congress (2/3 in House & Senate) Democrats retained majorities in Congress (2/3 in House & Senate) Class warfare– needy economic groups vs. greedy economic groups Class warfare– needy economic groups vs. greedy economic groups FDR –strong coalition: blacks, South, urbanites & poor (New Immigrants- Catholics & Jews) FDR –strong coalition: blacks, South, urbanites & poor (New Immigrants- Catholics & Jews) FDR appointed Catholics' to one of every four federal judgeships FDR appointed Catholics' to one of every four federal judgeships

47 **FDR’s Court Packing Scheme 7 of 9 cases involving New Deal programs declared unconstitutional by of 9 cases involving New Deal programs declared unconstitutional by Court was ultra-conservative (6 of 9 SC members= over 70 years old) Court was ultra-conservative (6 of 9 SC members= over 70 years old) FDR asked Congress for a bill- permit him to add a new justice to the SC for every member over 70 who would not retire (max. membership=15). FDR asked Congress for a bill- permit him to add a new justice to the SC for every member over 70 who would not retire (max. membership=15). Congress (both houses & parties) condemned the proposal= “dictator bill”= attempting to thwart checks & balances. Congress (both houses & parties) condemned the proposal= “dictator bill”= attempting to thwart checks & balances. Justice Owen Roberts- (conservative) began voting with liberals Justice Owen Roberts- (conservative) began voting with liberals SC –upheld other New Deal proposals: SS, Wagner etc. SC –upheld other New Deal proposals: SS, Wagner etc. Congress voted full pay to Justices over 70 who retired= one justice replaced by Hugo Black (New Dealer) Congress voted full pay to Justices over 70 who retired= one justice replaced by Hugo Black (New Dealer) Court Packing- major political mistake by FDR= ARROUSED CONSERVATIVES OF BOTH PARTIES. Court Packing- major political mistake by FDR= ARROUSED CONSERVATIVES OF BOTH PARTIES.

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49 The Roosevelt Recession (FDR’s 1 st Term)- did not end the Depression (FDR’s 1 st Term)- did not end the Depression unemployment = 15% (down from 25% in 1933) unemployment = 15% (down from 25% in 1933) Recovery= modest Recovery= modest economy took a downward turn economy took a downward turn. Causes: Social Security taxes- had begun to take money from payroll checks= less money to spend. Social Security taxes- had begun to take money from payroll checks= less money to spend. FDR administration cut back on spending (job creation). FDR administration cut back on spending (job creation). April FDR adopted theories of John Maynard Keynes (Keynesianism) = US policy for decades. April FDR adopted theories of John Maynard Keynes (Keynesianism) = US policy for decades.

50 The New Deal Comes to a Close 1937 FDR urged Congress (more conservative now)- to reorganize national administration= efficiency= failed FDR urged Congress (more conservative now)- to reorganize national administration= efficiency= failed The Reorganization Act- gave FDR limited powers to reform the national administration= Executive Office of White House created. * New Dealers accused of having huge war chest- relief checks often came about election time?? 2. Hatch Act (1939)- act barred federal administrative officials from campaigning except highest policy makers; forbade use of government finds for campaigning. Forbade collection of campaign funds from people getting relief checks. Forbade collection of campaign funds from people getting relief checks. By the NEW DEAL HAD LOST MOMENTUM By the NEW DEAL HAD LOST MOMENTUM Republicans (1 st time) made gains in Congressional elections Republicans (1 st time) made gains in Congressional elections

51 Impact of the New Deal A program of Reform-not revolution (restructure capitalism-not replace it) A program of Reform-not revolution (restructure capitalism-not replace it) New Deal had partially reduced unemployment & reviving the economy New Deal had partially reduced unemployment & reviving the economy Democratic Party= a major party Democratic Party= a major party Helped African-Americans & others survive Depression Helped African-Americans & others survive Depression US did not fully emerge from Depression until massive military expenditures of WWII. US did not fully emerge from Depression until massive military expenditures of WWII. Failures of the New Deal: Did not directly confront racial prejudice Did not directly confront racial prejudice Did not integrate armed forces Did not integrate armed forces Did not contain programs to protect civil rights Did not contain programs to protect civil rights Did not establish Bureau of Indian Affairs Did not establish Bureau of Indian Affairs Did not nationalize basic industries Did not nationalize basic industries Did not recognize unionization of migrant workers Did not recognize unionization of migrant workers

52 When Bing recorded this song in October, 1932, one out of every four Americans who wanted work could not find work. The banking system was near collapse. Record sales had plummeted because Americans did not have the money for such luxuries. No song captures the dark spirit of the Great Depression more than "Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?" Bing recorded the song shortly before President Roosevelt's election and it went to No. 1 in the charts. Bing Crosby

53 They used to tell me I was building a dream, and so I followed the mob, When there was earth to plow, or guns to bear, I was always there right on the job. They used to tell me I was building a dream, with peace and glory ahead, Why should I be standing in line, just waiting for bread? Once I built a railroad, I made it run, made it race against time. Once I built a railroad; now it's done. Brother, can you spare a dime? Once I built a tower, to the sun, brick, mortar and lime; Once I built a tower, now it's done. Brother, can you spare a dime?

54 Once in khaki suits, gee we looked swell, Full of that Yankee Doodly Dum, Half a million boots went marching through Hell, And I was the kid with the drum! Say, don't you remember, they called me Al; it was Al all the time. Hey don't you remember, I'm your pal? Buddy, can you spare a dime? Once I built a railroad, I made it run, made it race against time. Once I built a railroad; now it's done. Brother, can you spare a dime? Once I built a tower, to the sun, brick, mortar, and lime; Once I built a tower, now it's done. Brother, can you spare a dime?

55 Once in khaki suits, gee we looked swell, Full of that Yankee Doodly Dum, Half a million boots went marching through Hell, And I was the kid with the drum! Say, don't you remember, they called me Al; it was Al all the time. Say, don't you remember, I'm your pal? Brother, can you spare a dime?


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