Presentation on theme: "Unit 5: Europe Balkanization and Eastern Europe"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 5: Europe Balkanization and Eastern Europe Wed/Thurs, October 22-23, 2014
2Countries of Eastern Europe TODAY PolandCzech RepublicSlovakiaHungaryRomaniaSloveniaCroatiaBosnia-HerzegovinaSerbiaMontenegroKosovoBulgariaAlbaniaMacedonia
3SlavsThe ethnic term for many of the people of Eastern Europe is the Slavs. They are called this because of the hundreds of years they were enslaved by various empires. They eventually just became known as Slavs, which means Slaves.When you hear the term Slavs, or Slavic countries, you know the history of these people is one of slavery.
4Cultural CrossroadsCultural Crossroads: A place where cultures cross pathsPeople moving between Western Europe and Asia passed through the region of Eastern EuropeMany world powers have tried to control this regionRoman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, Kingdoms like Poland and Serbia, AustriaEthnic groups guarded their cultural identity because of the centuries of foreign ruleMany wanted their own nation-states even though they had never had self-ruleDesire to become nation-states sparked many conflicts
5BalkanizationBalkanization - process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units
6War After WarBalkan nations of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia had broken free of Ottoman EmpireGreece, Bulgaria, and Serbia go to war against the Ottomans and take the landBalkans fight over who should own that territory taken from the Ottomans
7Balkanization Leads To WWI Serbia wanted to free Slavs in Austria-HungarySerb assassinates Austrian noble (Archduke Franz Ferdinand)Austria-Hungary pulls in their AlliesSerbia pulls in their AlliesWWI begins ( )!Austria and Hungary split apartAlbania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia gain independenceOttoman Empire ends and is replaced by Turkey
8WWIIIn Nazi Germany invaded Poland and much of Eastern Europe and sparked the Second World War ( ).By Soviet Union was attacking Nazi Germany from both sides and occupied many Eastern European countries to form satellite nationsSatellite Nations - nations dominated by another countryCountries taken over by the Soviet Union became a part of the Iron Curtain.In Josip Broz Tito became dictator of Yugoslavia.
9WWII Leads To Communism Soviet Union ruled under Communism for FOUR decadesCommunism – government makes all economic decisions: they decide what and how much will be produced and who gets what; state owns all farms, factories, stores, and utilities; government decides the role everyone will play (personal lives); everyone is equalAlso called “Command or Planned Economy”
101980s and 1990sCommunist governments taught people to be loyal to the Communist government.Mikhail Gorbachev (late 1980s) began reform giving Eastern Europe more freedom.After communism fell in the early 1990s, nations demanded more reforms and people returned to their ethnic loyalties (rather than loyalty to government).Instability followed and it resulted in the creation of more nation-states.
11Civil WarThis was especially true in Yugoslavia, a nation consisting of six republics trying to break into independent nations caused civil war.
13Break Up of Yugoslavia1918 – Yugoslavia kingdom created after WWI by Western Allies1945 – Yugoslavia invaded by Nazis and recreated as a Socialist state afterward WWII by Josip Tito1980s – Tito died, Yugoslavia plunged into chaos, Slobodan Milosevic rose to power– DisintegrationSlovenia and Croatia first to break away and declare independence from YugoslaviaCroatia in conflict with minority SerbsBosnia (mostly Muslim) declared independence – Serb minority wanted to remain within Yugoslavia (build better Serbia)Bosnian Muslims government was besieged and Muslims were driven out in “ethnic cleansing” – scenes very similar to Nazi s during WWII (mass shooting, forces repopulation of towns, confinement in “concentration” like camps, used rape as a weapon against women/girls, etc.1993 – United Nations imposed economic sanctions against Serbia, deployed troops to protect distribution of food/medicine to Muslims, but prohibited troops from interfering militarily (US and European Union didn’t get involved)1994 – Sarajevo bombed (many dead/wounded) and got international attention, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) demanded Serbs withdraw from Sarajevo, they complied, and NATO imposed cease-fire in Sarajevo declared1995 – Dayton Peace DealTwo Self Governing Entities within Bosnia – Bosnian Serb Republic and Muslim (Bosnjak)-Croat FederationCalled for democratic elections and war criminals be handed over for prosecutionReintegrate Bosnia and protect human rights60,000 NATO Peacekeeping force charged with implementing military aspects of peace agreement200,000 Muslims civilians were killed in “genocide,” more than 20,000 missing, and 2,000,000 refugees1999 – Kosovo InterventionKosovo Liberation Army (ethnic Albanians) openly rebelled against Serbia– Milosevic OustedSlobodan Milosevic lost presidential election in 2000 but refused to accept results so was forced outHanded over to United Nations War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague and put on trial for crimes against humanity2006 – Death of MilosevicMilosevic found dead in his cell in The Hague on March 11, 2006 – heart attack
14The Wars of the 1990sMany civil wars followed the breakup of the former YugoslaviaWar in Slovenia (1991)Croatian War of Independence ( )Bosnian War ( )Kosovar War ( )Southern Serbian Conflict ( )Macedonian Conflict (2001)
15Eastern Europe rests upon “cultural fault lines” making it a “shatter belt:” A culturally and politically fragmented region, shaped by the collisions of aggressive, stronger external powers, whose clashes have ‘shattered’ the region’s earlier cultural uniformity. Recovering from Communism of Soviet Union.