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Fort Sumter, April 12-15, 1861. Mobilization Lincoln prepares North for war VA, AR, TN, NC secede 4 slave states remain –Delaware –Border states / regions.

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Presentation on theme: "Fort Sumter, April 12-15, 1861. Mobilization Lincoln prepares North for war VA, AR, TN, NC secede 4 slave states remain –Delaware –Border states / regions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fort Sumter, April 12-15, 1861

2 Mobilization Lincoln prepares North for war VA, AR, TN, NC secede 4 slave states remain –Delaware –Border states / regions Maryland Kentucky Missouri Western Virginia

3 Temporary measures Lincoln would take no chances with MD Imprisonment of pro-secession state legislators Suppression of disloyal newspapers Suspended habeas corpus –Supreme Court struck it down –Lincoln ignored Taney – just like Jackson

4

5 American Civil War

6 North v. South On the eve of war, one certainty: North has material advantage 2x the population – 4x the white pop. More fighters and workers Northern advanced industrial complex South improved, still reliant on Europe North has better transportation: More and better roads; 2x the rails Better integrated rails – uniform gauges By 1864 Southern inferior rails collapse

7 Comparing Sides

8 Railroads 1860

9 Hindsight is 20/20 At the time, South seems better situated Defense war, positions --so… North fighting in the South –so… Southern commitment mostly uniform Northern commitment divided, shaky to end One decisive victory away from failure of Northern will Perhaps even European intervention for South

10 Strategy and Diplomacy Militarily –Initiative to fight is up to the Union –To keep South it has to defeat South Diplomatically –South has to gain recognition from Europe –North needs to maintain status quo Attack and Die –South adopts a “Celtic” strategy – full frontal assault

11 Commander-In- Chief Material Advantage Sees goal –destroy Armies –not territories Lincoln is more competent than his generals –Not schooled in war –“By the power of his mind, [he] became a fine strategist.”

12 Lincoln’s Generals Irwin McDowell Winfield Scott George McClellan, Again! McClellan George McClellan Ambrose Burnside Joseph Hooker George Meade Ulysses S. Grant

13 Joint Committee on the Conduct of War Congress’ voice in formulating war policy Very powerful, interfering Joint investigative committee from both houses Chair: Sen. Benjamin Wade of Ohio Radical Republicanism Function Constantly plague Lincoln

14 Confederate States of America Professional Solider (West Point) Fails to create effective system of command 1862 names Robert E. Lee principal military advisor No plan on sharing Fed up, Lee goes to field

15 The Confederate Generals Jeb Stuart James Longstreet George Pickett “Stonewall” Jackson Nathan Bedford Forrest Robert E. Lee

16 The North’s Plan

17 Anaconda Gen. Scott Naval blockade River control Eventually “squeeze” toward Richmond

18 Advantage at Sea 1. Logistics most important 2. Union Blockades –Not fully effective –Smugglers (Gone with the Wind) –Union is able to squeeze Southern ports South tries to break the Blockade –Ironclads – Merrimack v. Monitor –Torpedo boats –Hand-powered submarines CSS Huley v. USS Housatonic

19 USS Cairo

20 Europe England and France Southern sympathizers at start –Cotton importation –Weaken USA –Aristocratic nature of society France stays out – will follow Britain Britain stays out – Popular Union support Freedom v. slavery Emancipation Proclamation fuels this view

21 Death of King Cotton 1861 UK cotton surplus No need for CS cotton Turn to Egypt and India to meet demand Major southern bargaining tool undermined No foreign recognition – never proves its close enough

22 Battle of Bull Run (1 st Manassas) July, 1861 North defeated Disorganized retreat Stonewall Jackson got his name

23 The Battle of the Ironclads, March, 1862 The Monitor vs. the Merrimac

24 War in the East:

25 Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War” September 17, 1862

26 Order No. 191 Lee’s battle plan for Antietam Fell into Union hands McClellan knew exactly how Lee would attack Still, McClellan refused to commit to victory

27 23,000 casualties

28 The Emancipation Proclamation

29 Emancipation in 1863

30 The Famous 54 th Massachusetts

31 Extensive Legislation Passed Without the South in Congress 1861 – Morrill Tariff Act 1862 – Homestead Act 1862 – Legal Tender Act 1862 – Morrill Land Grant Act 1862 – Emancipation Proclamation (1/1/1863) 1863 – Pacific Railway Act 1863 – National Bank Act 1861 – Morrill Tariff Act 1862 – Homestead Act 1862 – Legal Tender Act 1862 – Morrill Land Grant Act 1862 – Emancipation Proclamation (1/1/1863) 1863 – Pacific Railway Act 1863 – National Bank Act

32 The War in the West, 1863: Vicksburg Vicksburg

33 The Road to Gettysburg: 1863

34 Gettysburg Casualties

35 The North Initiates the Draft, 1863

36 NYC Draft Riots, (July 13-16, 1863)

37 Inflation in the South

38 The Progress of War:

39 Sherman’s “March to the Sea” through Georgia, 1864

40 1864 Election Pres. Lincoln (R) George McClellan (D)

41 The Peace Movement: Copperheads Clement Vallandigham

42 Presidential Election Results: 1864

43 The Final Virginia Campaign:

44 Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865

45 Casualties on Both Sides

46 Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars

47 Ford’s Theater (April 14, 1865)

48 The Assassin John Wilkes Booth

49 The Assassination “Sic semper tyrannis!”

50 WANTEDWANTED

51 The Execution


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