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1960s. ELECTION OF 1960  22 nd Amendment (1951) –First president effected-Eisenhower –Limited president to two terms or a maximum of 10 years  Republicans.

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Presentation on theme: "1960s. ELECTION OF 1960  22 nd Amendment (1951) –First president effected-Eisenhower –Limited president to two terms or a maximum of 10 years  Republicans."— Presentation transcript:

1 1960s

2 ELECTION OF 1960  22 nd Amendment (1951) –First president effected-Eisenhower –Limited president to two terms or a maximum of 10 years  Republicans –Nominate-Richard Nixon (VP)  Democrats –Nominate-John F. Kennedy (Senator from Massachusetts) –Running mate-Lyndon Johnson (Senate Majority Leader from Texas)

3 ELECTION OF 1960  Campaign –Most decisive factor-Television –First televised presidential debates –Factors against Kennedy Age, Religion, Father –One of the closest races in history –Kennedy won by 100,000 popular votes & 303 to 219 in the electoral college

4 DOMESTIC POLICY  NEW FRONTIER –Aid for education, federal health care, urban renewal & civil rights –Congress passed few of Kennedy’s programs –Stimulated the economy by increased spending for defense and space exploration Goal-man on the moon by the end of the decade

5 FOREIGN POLICY  Peace Corps (1961) –Recruited young Americans to help raise the standard of living in developing countries  Alliance for Progress (1961) –Promote social and economic reform in Latin America  Trade Expansion Act (1962) –Reduced tariffs with Western European nations

6 BAY OF PIGS (1961) Inherited by Eisenhower Gave approval to CIA to go ahead with plan April 1961-Cuban exiles land at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba to retake the island Failed to cause an uprising & trapped on beach Kennedy refused to send in American troops Worst mistake of Kennedy’s presidency

7 BERLIN WALL (1961)  Soviet Union builds wall between East & West Berlin  Purpose-stop East Germans from fleeing to West Germany  1963-Kennedy visits West Berlin & promises to support

8 CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS  US spy planes discover Soviet missiles on Cuba  Kennedy sets up Naval blockade of Cuba & threatens invasion of island if missiles are not removed  Soviet sends ships to break blockade  Nuclear War eminent  Soviet ships one mile from blockade-turn around  Missiles removed from island=US does not invade

9 NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY (1963) Signed by US, Soviet Union, & 100 other nations  Ended testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere  Offset by new round in the arms race

10 KENNEDY ASSASSINATION  November 22nd, 1963  Dallas, TX  Motorcade through downtown  Kennedy shot in shoulder & in head  Lee Harvey Oswald arrested  Oswald killed by Jack Ruby two days later on his way to the courthouse

11 KENNEDY ASSASSINATION  President Johnson sworn in aboard Air Force One  Establishes the Warren Commission –Led by Chief Justice Earl Warren –Believed Oswald was the only assassin –“Magic Bullet” theory  Conspiracy Theories –Government –Organized Crime –Castro


13 GREAT SOCIETY  Devote follower of the New Deal  Persuaded Congress to pass Kennedy’s Civil Rights Bill and income tax cut  War on Poverty –Michael Harrington-The Other America (1962)-focused attention to the 40 million Americans living in poverty –Johnson announces a war on poverty –Created Office of Economic Opportunity-self-help programs for the poor –Significantly reduce the amount of families in poverty

14 ELECTION OF 1964  Democrats re-nominate Johnson-running mate-Hubert Humphrey  Republicans nominate-Barry Goldwater- wanted to end welfare programs like social security  Johnson wins in a landslide-61% of popular vote  Democrats win 2/3 majority in both houses of Congress

15 LEGISLATIVE ACHIEVEMENTS  Medicare-Health insurance for 65 and older  Medicaid-Health care for those poor and disabled  Elementary and Secondary Education Act- provided money to poor school districts  New Immigration Law-abolished quotas and increased opportunities for Asians and Latin Americans to come to the US  National Foundation for the Arts and Humanities- provided federal funding for creative and scholarly projects

16 LEGISLATIVE ACHIEVEMENTS  Creation of Dept. of Transportation and Dept. of Housing and Urban Development  Increased funding for higher education- Grants  Increased funding for public housing and crime prevention


18 CRIMINAL JUSTICE  Mapp v. Ohio (1961)-ruled that illegally seized evidence can not be used in court  Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)-required that state courts provide counsel (lawyers) for those that can not afford one-”Gideon’s Trumpet”  Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)-required the police to inform an arrested person of their right to remain silent  Miranda v. Arizona (1966)-gave the right for a lawyer to be present during questioning by the police

19 STATE REAPPORTIONMENT  Baker v. Carr (1962)-declared the practice of drawing district lines to favor certain areas or political parties to be unconstitutional  Districts needed to be drawn to provide equal representation of all citizens

20 FREEDOMS OF EXPRESSION & PRIVACY  Yates v. US (1957)-First Amendment protection to radical and revolutionary speech unless it was a clear and present danger to the safety of the country, protected communists  Engel v. Vitale (1962)-ruled that state laws requiring prayers and bible readings in public schools violated separation of church and state  Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)-ruled that states could not prohibit the use of contraceptives by adults because it violated the right to privacy, used to establish a woman’s right to an abortion

21 1968 “The year everything went wrong”  January-Tet Offensive-Americans unsympathetic to Vietnam war  April 4-Martin Luther King assassinated in Memphis by James Earl Ray-riots break out across the nation  January-June: Student protests on 100 college campus involving 40,000 students –Most famous-April, Protest at Columbia University in New York City, students take over four buildings

22 1968 “The year everything went wrong”  June 4-Democratic presidential nominee, Robert F. Kennedy assassinated in California by Sirhan Sirhan  August-Democratic National Convention in Chicago brings 10,000 anti-war protestors into the streets-very violent  Sanitation workers, policemen, firemen, and teachers all go on strike in New York City during 1968

23 ELECTION OF 1968  Johnson states that he will not accept the nomination of the Democratic party  Democrats nominate-Hubert Humphrey (VP)-very liberal  Republicans nominate-Richard Nixon-very conservative-slogan: “Peace with Honor”

24 ELECTION OF 1968  American Independent Party nominates- George Wallace-Gov. of Alabama-very discriminatory towards African-American civil rights  Results: Nixon wins, very close popular vote, but strong majority in electoral college

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