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The 1960s…. But first…  Your terms are due on Wednesday.  You must email me your terms Wednesday morning by 7am  ALSO your last study guide is due.

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Presentation on theme: "The 1960s…. But first…  Your terms are due on Wednesday.  You must email me your terms Wednesday morning by 7am  ALSO your last study guide is due."— Presentation transcript:

1 The 1960s…

2 But first…  Your terms are due on Wednesday.  You must me your terms Wednesday morning by 7am  ALSO your last study guide is due Weds.  In your header you will write your name, class period, and question numbers that you were assigned.   Also, if you missing days make sure you check the website daily. Assignments are still due whether you are here or not!

3 Today’s activity  Through PPTs, your textbook, and handouts you will answer the three Essential questions located in this powerpoint.  You will write a thesis statement for each and explain THREE key evidence points to defend your argument.

4  Essential Question #1:  To what degree did Kennedy’s “New Frontier” domestic & foreign policy differ from Truman & Eisenhower in the 1950s?

5  Essential Question #2:  To what degree was Lyndon Johnson’s “Great Society” a continuation of JFK’s “New Frontier” domestic agenda?

6 Essential Question #3 Comparing FDR’s New Deal with LBJ’s Great Society Which reform movement was more important?

7 Kennedy & the New Frontier

8  The election of 1960 between Richard Nixon & John F. Kennedy was the 1 st to use TV debates:  Nixon was much better known but the TV debates helped swing undecided voters towards JFK  1960 marked the beginning of television dominance in politics  Image & appearance became essential traits for candidates JFK’s New Frontier But, it was not the 1 st time TV influenced politics… Eisenhower used TV to campaign in 1952 & 1956 McCarthy was destroyed by TV in the Army-Senate hearings Nixon used to TV to defend himself in the “Checkers” speech TN Senator Kefauver used TV to investigate organized crime

9  Kennedy’ administration reflected youth, energy, & sharp break from Eisenhower  JFK promised a New Frontier:  Domestic reforms in education, health care, & civil rights  A foreign policy committed to defeating the Soviet Union & winning the Cold War JFK’s New Frontier The JFK era began “Camelot” comparisons with JFK as a modern-day Lancelot

10  JFK’s New Frontier promised a return of FDR-era liberal policies:  But, Conservatives in Congress opposed JFK’s social reforms in education & health care  Congress did help the poor  The modernization of industry, gov’t spending, & a major tax cut in 1963 stimulated the economy & created jobs JFK’s New Frontier Aid for public schools… …the extension of Social Security… …unemployment benefits… …and medical insurance for the elderly were all shot down by Congress An increase in the minimum wage Increased funds for public housing

11  One long-lasting achievement of the JFK-era was strengthening the presidency:  Eisenhower left many decisions to his staff, but JFK demanded more direct presidential control  JFK transferred much of the decision-making power from the cabinet to his White House staff JFK’s New Frontier JFK appointed tough, pragmatic, & academic “New Frontiersmen” to his staff Kennedy referred to his staff as the “the best & the brightest”

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13 Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War

14  Addressing U.S. foreign policy & containing Communism was JFK’s top priority as president:  JFK believed Ike compromised with the USSR when the Cold War could have been won  JFK aimed to close the “missile gap” & increase U.S. defenses  Looked to solve issues in Berlin, Vietnam, & Cuba Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival & success of liberty. We will do this & more.” —JFK’s inaugural address

15  JFK shifted from Ike’s “mutually assured destruction” to a “flexible response” capable of responding to a variety of future problems:  Increased nuclear arsenal to 1,000 ICBMs & 32 Polaris subs to create a “first-strike” capability  Increased the army & air force  Expanded covert operations & created the Green Berets Flexible Response JFK was convinced that the USSR had more missiles, but really the U.S. had the lead with 600 B-52s, 2 Polaris subs, 2,000 warheads To combat Communism & to help underdeveloped countries, JFK created the Peace Corps & the Alliance for Progress

16  JFK hoped to avoid another Sputnik & hoped to beat the Soviets to the moon:  JFK greatly expanded NASA & announced that the U.S. would get to the moon by 1970  The U.S. landed a man on the moon in 1969 The Space Race The Apollo Program

17  JFK’s 1 st confrontation with the Soviet Union came in Berlin:  Khrushchev was upset with the exodus of skilled workers from East Germany to West Berlin  The USSR threatened to remove all U.S. influence from West Berlin, but settled on building the Berlin Wall in 1961 Crisis over Berlin

18 “Ich bin ein Berliner” —JFK, 1963

19  Vietnam proved to be a tough test:  Since 1954, Communist leader Ho Chi Minh gained popularity in North Vietnam; By 1961, he gained a foothold in the South  The U.S. gave aid to unpopular South leader Ngo Dihn Diem  When Diem lost control of the South, JFK gave the OK for a coup against Diem in 1963 Containment in Vietnam “Strongly in our mind is what happened in China at the end of World War II, where China was lost. We don’t want that.” —JFK

20 Vietnam Viet Minh are Vietnamese communists in North Vietnam Viet Cong are Vietnamese communists in South Vietnam

21 Monk Quang Duc protested Diem’s treatment of Buddhists

22  Fidel Castro took over Cuba in 1959 & developed ties with Russia  The Eisenhower administration (directed by the CIA) had been training Cuban exiles for an invasion & overthrow of Castro  In 1961, JFK gave the OK for the CIA to initiate the Bay of Pigs invasion Containing Castro: Bay of Pigs JFK blamed the Republicans for allowing a “communist satellite” to arise on “our very doorstep”

23 The invasion called for U.S. air support but JFK canceled the air strike; without air support, Castro squashed the invasion Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure of Bay of Pigs, but did not apologize for coup

24  To protect Cuba from another U.S. invasion, the USSR began a secret build-up of nuclear missiles  On Oct 14, 1962 a U-2 spy plane discovered Cuban missile camps  How would the U.S. respond? Cuban Missile Crisis 24 medium-range & 18 short range ICBMs Naval blockade to keep warheads out? Diplomacy: trade nukes in Cuba for nukes in Turkey? Immediate air strike? Full-scale invasion? Kennedy chose to “quarantine” Cuba to keep new missiles out & an invasion of Cuba if the USSR did not remove its nukes

25 The Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy announced a quarantine (blockade) to keep more missiles out & demanded that the Soviets remove the missiles already in Cuba "We are eyeball to eyeball, and the other fellow just blinked." —Sec of State, Dean Rusk

26  The standoff ended when Russia removed its Cuban missiles & the USA vowed to never invade Cuba  The impact of the crisis:  Seen as a political victory for JFK  Installed a “hot line” to improve US-Soviet communications  This near-nuclear war convinced both sides to move from confrontation to negotiation Cuban Missile Crisis “Our most basic common link is the fact that we all inhabit this planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children’s future. We are all mortal.” —JFK And…U.S. removal of nuclear weapons in Turkey

27  On Nov 22, 1963 in Dallas, JFK was assassinated & VP Lyndon Johnson became president:  LBJ was a master politician with a reputation for getting results  LBJ promised to continue Kennedy's liberal agenda  LBJ ultimately exceeded JFK’s record on providing economic & racial equality "Let Us Continue" LBJ helped push through the greatest array of liberal legislation in U.S. history (“Great Society”), surpassing FDR’s New Deal

28 Americans were stunned this rapid succession of events

29 Lincoln Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846 & as President in 1860 Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846 & as President in 1860 He was directly concerned with Civil Rights He was directly concerned with Civil Rights Lincoln was shot in the head in front of his wife on a Friday Lincoln was shot in the head in front of his wife on a Friday Lincoln shot in the Ford Theatre Lincoln shot in the Ford Theatre The assassin, John Wilkes Booth, was known by three names of 15 letters The assassin, John Wilkes Booth, was known by three names of 15 letters Booth shot Lincoln in a theater and fled to a warehouse (barn) Booth shot Lincoln in a theater and fled to a warehouse (barn) Booth was killed before being brought to trial Booth was killed before being brought to trial There were theories that Booth was part of a greater conspiracy There were theories that Booth was part of a greater conspiracy Lincoln's successor was Andrew Johnson, born in 1808 Lincoln's successor was Andrew Johnson, born in 1808Kennedy Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946 & as President in 1960 Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946 & as President in 1960 He was directly concerned with Civil Rights He was directly concerned with Civil Rights Kennedy was shot in the head in front of his wife on a Friday Kennedy was shot in the head in front of his wife on a Friday Kennedy shot in a Lincoln (Ford) Kennedy shot in a Lincoln (Ford) The assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, was known by three names of 15 letters The assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, was known by three names of 15 letters Oswald shot Kennedy from a warehouse and fled to a theater Oswald shot Kennedy from a warehouse and fled to a theater Oswald was killed before being brought to trial Oswald was killed before being brought to trial There were theories that Oswald was part of a greater conspiracy There were theories that Oswald was part of a greater conspiracy Kennedy's successor was Lyndon Johnson, born in 1908 Kennedy's successor was Lyndon Johnson, born in 1908

30  LBJ quickly pushed through Congress 2 key “Kennedy” bills:  A $10 billion reduction in income taxes that led to increased consumer spending & new jobs  The Civil Rights Act of 1964 that declared segregation in public facilities illegal & protected black voting rights Lyndon Johnson in Action The most significant legislation on race since the Reconstruction Amendments

31  In 1964, LBJ waged a “war on poverty in America” & created the Office of Economic Opportunity:  Created the Job Corps for high school dropouts  Head Start for preschoolers  Adult education & technical training opportunities  As a result, America had 10 million fewer poor people by 1970 Lyndon Johnson in Action In 1964, the U.S. had 35 million poor people

32  In 1964, LBJ ran against:  Conservative Republican Barry Goldwater rejected LBJ’s liberal welfare programs & called for a stronger foreign policy stance  Segregationist George Wallace  LBJ won in a landslide & the Democrats took control of Congress for 1 st time in 25 years The Election of 1964

33 The “Daisy” Campaign Spot e.org/commercials/1964/peace- little-girl-daisy e.org/commercials/1964/peace- little-girl-daisy

34  Once elected, LBJ initiated his “Great Society” domestic agenda:  Medicare & Medicaid extended health insurance to the elderly & the poor  Extended $1 billion to improve public & parochial schools  The Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned literacy tests & provided for federal registrars for polls The Great Society

35  By 1965, Congress passed 89 laws or reforms as part of LBJ’s social agenda:  The Great Society was the most comprehensive agenda of social reform since FDR  But…the American people did not respond well to LBJ  Soon…events in Vietnam, would taint his presidency The Triumph of Reform

36 Johnson Escalates the Vietnam War

37  LBJ continued JFK’s strong foreign policy positions too:  He supported CIA-sponsored coups in Brazil, Panama, & the Dominican Republic  LBJ continued Eisenhower & JFK policies towards Vietnam  But in doing so, LBJ found himself under attack from Congress, the media, & universities LBJ Escalates the Vietnam War “I am not going to lose Vietnam. I am not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went.” —LBJ

38  During the Gulf of Tonkin affair in Aug 1964, the military bombed North Vietnam in retaliation for an attack on the USS Maddox  The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave LBJ the authority to:  Defend Vietnam at any cost  Unlimited military intervention to be used at LBJ’s discretion LBJ Escalates the Vietnam War

39 The Vietnam War

40  1965 marked the beginning of full-scale U.S. involvement in Vietnam  LBJ was informed that “without U.S. action, defeat is inevitable”  LBJ authorized bombing raids into North Vietnam & requested 50,000 U.S. soldiers sent to Asia  LBJ never explained to the American people how the gov’t planned to win the war in Vietnam Escalation LBJ’s advisors wanted 100,000 troops in 1965 & a plan for 100,000 more in 1966; Estimations were 500 U.S. deaths per month LBJ took middle road of limited U.S. intervention: not a withdrawal & not a full-scale invasion of North Vietnam

41  By 1968, 500,000 U.S. troops stationed to keep Vietnam from falling to Communism  U.S. bombings & “search & destroy” attacks were ineffective  Soviet & Chinese weaponry freely flowed into North Vietnam  Reckless bombings killed thousands of innocent civilians  The bloody stalemate & media depiction of the war led to protests Stalemate

42 Image of the “My Lai Massacre,” 1968

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44  The early 1960s under JFK represented consumer spending, a strong stance on the Cold War, & more social reforms at home  The transition to LBJ in 1963 brought success at home (civil rights & the Great Society)  But, heightened involvement in Vietnam signaled the onset of the counter-culture movement by 1968 Conclusions

45 1968: Year in pictures and video


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