Presentation on theme: "Essential Question: How did President Kennedy’s “New Frontier” agenda change America in the 1960s? Warm-Up Question: What does it take to be a “great”"— Presentation transcript:
1Essential Question:How did President Kennedy’s “New Frontier” agenda change America in the 1960s?Warm-Up Question:What does it take to be a “great” president?
2America by 1960By 1960, Americans were anxious about the changes that had taken place in the 1950s:The economic boom of the 1950s dipped into a recessionRock ‘n’ roll music scared parentsCivil rights protests increased fears of racial violenceEisenhower’s foreign policies made many people wonder if America was losing the Cold WarSoviet launch of Sputnik in 1957The rise of Fidel Castro in Cuba in 1959Communism in VietnamUse of brinksmanship & build up of ICBMs led to fears of a nuclear attackThe U-2 incident
3JFK campaign commercial (1.00) The Election of 1960The election of 1960 marked a turning point in U.S. politicsDemocrat John F. Kennedy offered youth & hopeServed 2 Senate termsHad no foreign policy experience; Seen as inexperienced; CatholicBut, offered active leadership to address America’s problemsRepublican Richard Nixon offered experienceServed 8 years as VPHad foreign policy experience during the critical stages of the Cold WarPromised to keep gov’t spending & taxes lowJFK campaign commercial (1.00)
4The Election of 1960“That night image replaced the printed word as the natural language of politics”—Journalist Russell BakerThe election of 1960 marked a turning point in U.S. politics1960 was the 1st time presidential debates were on TVTV debates helped JFK win the election1960 marked the beginning of TV dominance in politics
5Analysis of JFK’s Inaugural Address, 1961 Listen to the audio excerpt from JFK’s inaugural address to the nation in & answer the following questions:Based on JFK’s speech, identify at least 3 goals he has as president ?
6The New FrontierJFK’s family captivated the nationPresident Kennedy represented youth, charisma, hope, & a new approach to governmentFirst Lady Jacqueline Kennedy created new standards of American fashion for womenThe nation adored their two young children
7JFK’s “New Frontier”President Kennedy’s vision for America was called the “New Frontier”He filled out his cabinet & White House staff with the “best & the brightest” political minds in America
8JFK’s “New Frontier”At home, President Kennedy wanted to improve the lives of all Americans:After the violence in Birmingham in 1963, JFK committed to create the Civil Rights ActHe wanted to wage a “war on poverty” to help close the gap between the rich & the poor
9JFK’s “New Frontier”In the Cold War, JFK took a strong stand against the Soviet Union:He believed that the USSR had more ICBMs (“missile gap”) & better space technologyHe wanted a “flexible response” to fight the Cold War: more ICBMs but also a bigger militaryHe wanted a “first strike capability” against the USSR, (rather than “mutually assured destruction”)I am directing the Secretary of Defense to undertake a reorganization and modernization o the Army's divisional structure, to increase its non-nuclear firepower, to improve its tactical mobility in any environment, to insure its flexibility to meet any direct or indirect threat, to facilitate its coordination with our major allies, and to provide more modern mechanized divisions in Europe and bring their equipment up to date, and [to provide] new airborne brigades in both the Pacific and Europe.President John F. Kennedy
11The Berlin Crisis, 1961In JFK’s first year in office, Soviet leader Khrushchev threatened to cut off access to West BerlinJFK vowed to never give up access to West BerlinRather than blockade the city, Communist leaders built the Berlin Wall in 1961 to keep East Germans out of West Berlin
12“Ich bin ein Berliner” —JFK, 1963 Walls and other barriers 10–15 feet high surrounded West Berlin. The length of the barriers around the city totaled about 110 miles“Ich bin ein Berliner”—JFK, 1963The “death strip” stretched like a barren moat around West Berlin, with patrols, floodlights, electric fences, and vehicle traps between the inner and outer walls
13The Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961 In 1959, Fidel Castro gained control of Cuba, seized property, & took aid from Khrushchev in the Soviet Union
14Cuba: The Bay of Pigs Invasion JFK went on TV & took responsibility for the failure at the Bay of PigsIn 1959, Fidel Castro gained control of Cuba, seized property, & took aid from Khrushchev in the Soviet UnionUnder Eisenhower, the CIA trained Cuban exiles to invade the island & overthrow of CastroIn 1961, JFK authorized the plan, but the Bay of Pigs invasion failed after JFK called off air strikes on Cuba
15The Cuban Missile Crisis After the failure at the Bay of Pigs, Soviet leader Khrushchev promised to defend Cuba from the USAIn 1962, U.S. spy planes revealed nuclear missile camps in CubaIf assembled, Soviet ICBMs in Cuba would give the USSR first strike capability on U.S. targetsJFK warned that he would not allow nuclear missiles in Cuba
16The Cuban Missile Crisis The potential threat: Cuba with Soviet-provided military equipment & nuclear missilesNot all missiles in Cuba were operational, but Khrushchev shipped more missiles to Cuba
17Quick Class Discussion: How should President Kennedy respond? Advisors presented JFK with several optionsWhat are the positives/negatives of each?What should JFK do? Rank order these optionsImmediate air strike on existing missile sitesFull military invasion of Cuba; Take out CastroDiplomacy: trade ICBMs in Cuba for ours in Turkey?Naval blockade to keep out the in-route Soviet missiles
18Kennedy announced a quarantine (blockade) to keep more missiles out & demanded that the Soviets remove the missiles already in CubaSoviet ships, escorted by nuclear-equipped submarines, soon approached the quarantine line & the world waited for World War III
19Cuban Missile Crisis The standoff ended when a deal was reached: Soviet ships turned around at the last minute & Khrushchev removed its missiles from CubaJFK promised that the U.S. would not invade Cuba & secretly agreed to remove ICBMs from TurkeyThe crisis ended as a victory for JFK, but it revealed how close the two sides came to nuclear war
20JFK & the Cold WarPresident Kennedy fought the Cold War in other ways:JFK created the Peace Corps in 1961 to send humanitarian aid & improve U.S. relations with under-developed nationsIn 1962, JFK committed the U.S. to catch the USSR in the space race by landing a man on the moon by the end of the decadeU.S. landed on the moon in 1969
22Essential Question:How did the assassination of President John F. Kennedy impact the United States?Warm-Up Question:How effectively did Kennedy handle the Cold War during his presidency?
23On Nov 22, 1963 John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas
24The Assassination of JFK On Nov 22, 1963 John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, TexasChronology of events:Lee Harvey Oswald was arrestedVP Lyndon Johnson was sworn in as president on Air Force OneTwo days later, Oswald was killed by Jack RubyAfter a 10 month investigation, the Warren Report stated that Oswald was a “lone gunman”Kennedy's Assassination: Dallas Chronology. Sequential chronology of the SPECIFIC, PROVABLE events that took place in Dallas on November 23, 1963.11:40 a.m. Air Force One arrives at Love Field in Dallas, Texas.11:45 a.m. The Presidential motorcade leaves Love Field.11:50 a.m. President Kennedy stops to greet youngsters at Lemmon Avenue and Lomo Alto Drive.12:22 p.m. The motorcade stops at Ervay Street.12:30 p.m. President Kennedy and Senator John Connally are hit by bullets. Their limousine speeds to Parkland Memorial Hospital.12:36 p.m. The President's limousine arrives at Parkland.12:40 p.m. Vice presidential aides arrive at Trade Mart, where a crowd is awaiting the president's arrival.12:40 p.m. Lee Harvey Oswald boards a bus.12:44 p.m. Oswald gets off the bus.12:47 p.m. Oswald enters a cab.12:54 p.m. Oswald leaves the cab and walks to his boarding house.12:59 p.m. Oswald arrives at his boarding house. He leaves several minutes later with a pistol.1:15 p.m. Oswald is stopped by police officer J.D. Tippit. Tippit is shot to death.1:45 p.m. Oswald runs into the Texas Theater.1:50 p.m. Oswald is arrested inside the theater.2:08 p.m. A hearse bearing Kennedy's body leaves Parkland hospital.2:15 p.m. The hearse arrives at Love Field.11/24/63:Morning Jack Ruby is at his apartment when a friend calls asking him to wire $25.11:17 a.m. Ruby arrives at Western Union to wire the money.11:21 a.m. Ruby shoots Oswald.
25LincolnLincoln was elected to Congress in 1846 & as President in 1860He was directly concerned with Civil RightsLincoln was shot in the head in front of his wife on a FridayLincoln shot in the Ford TheatreThe assassin, John Wilkes Booth, was known by three names of 15 lettersBooth shot Lincoln in a theater and fled to a warehouse (barn)Booth was killed before being brought to trialThere were theories that Booth was part of a greater conspiracyLincoln's successor was Andrew Johnson, born in 1808KennedyKennedy was elected to Congress in 1946 & as President in 1960He was directly concerned with Civil RightsKennedy was shot in the head in front of his wife on a FridayKennedy shot in a Lincoln (Ford)The assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, was known by three names of 15 lettersOswald shot Kennedy from a warehouse and fled to a theaterOswald was killed before being brought to trialThere were theories that Oswald was part of a greater conspiracyKennedy's successor was Lyndon Johnson, born in 1908
26JFK Conspiracy Theories For more information on JFK conspiracy theories, check out this link
28The Impact of the Assassination JFK’s assassination had important consequences for America:The “martyrdom” of JFK put pressure on Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964VP Lyndon Johnson carried out JFK’s “war on poverty”LBJ enacted his own program called the “Great Society” with civil rights, medical insurance, environmental, & social programs
29The Legacy of JFKWhat was the legacy of JFK? Did Kennedy accomplish his goals? How effective was he as president?In groups, answer these questions by completing the chart in your notesBrainstorm the goals of JFK & identify if or how he accomplished the goalNext, give JFK a “grade” for each of these goals & an overall “grade” as president
31Essential Question:What was the impact of President Lyndon Johnson’s “Great Society” program?Warm-Up Question:If JFK did not live long enough to see most of his domestic programs created, what was his contribution as a president?
32President Lyndon Johnson In 1963, LBJ finished the last year of JFK’s presidency & then ran for president in the 1964 election:His opponent was conservative Republican Barry Goldwater who talked about strongly resisting the USSR with nuclear weaponsJohnson won & began his “Great Society,” the broadest series of social reforms since FDR’s New DealThe Great Society was
33Lyndon Johnson & the Great Society What were the significant programs of President Johnson’s “Great Society”?In groups, examine each of the placards & take notes in the graphic organizerAfter you have seen all 9 stations, rank order the programs in terms of most significant (#1) to least significant (#9)