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Lean Six Sigma DMAIC Workshop Green Belt Part 5 6 σ Green Belt 5/10/20151Green Belt Training.

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Presentation on theme: "Lean Six Sigma DMAIC Workshop Green Belt Part 5 6 σ Green Belt 5/10/20151Green Belt Training."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lean Six Sigma DMAIC Workshop Green Belt Part 5 6 σ Green Belt 5/10/20151Green Belt Training

2 5/10/2015Green Belt Training2 Cause & Effect Matrix

3 5/10/2015Green Belt Training3 Application Examples  Manufacturing –A process engineer on a continuous dye line wants to determine which process inputs have the greatest impact on customer color and shade requirements  Transactional –A customer service manager wants to determine which process inputs and steps have the most impact on customer satisfaction and order processing  Design –A design engineer wants to identify which product characteristics and parameters have the most impact on customer satisfaction and requirements

4 5/10/2015Green Belt Training4 C&E Matrix  The team develops an understanding of the greatest sources of variation within the process and pinpoints the critical few key process input variables that must be addressed to improve the key process output variables

5 5/10/2015Green Belt Training5 C&E Matrix  What – A cause and effect matrix is a simplified matrix that gives focus to the inputs that are most likely to impact process output – It relates the key inputs to the key outputs (customer requirements) using the process map as the primary source

6 5/10/2015Green Belt Training6 C&E Matrix  Why – To determine key process input variables for performance improvement to best meet key process output variable requirements – To identify which key process input variables (causes) most influence the key process output variable (effect)

7 5/10/2015Green Belt Training7 C&E Matrix  How – Identify key customer requirements (outputs) from the process map – Outputs are given a priority score according to importance to the customer (usually on a 1 to 10 scale, with 10 being most important) – Identify all process steps and materials (inputs) from the process map

8 5/10/2015Green Belt Training8 C&E Matrix  Inputs are rated based on the strength of their relationship with output variables and given a correlation score as follows: 0 = no correlation 1 = weak correlation 2 = moderate correlation 3 = strong correlation  Cross multiply correlation scores with priority scores and add across for each input  Sort and focus on the variables with the highest scores

9 5/10/2015Green Belt Training9 C&E Matrix  Who Team critical success factors; – Facilitator‘s skills – Participants subject matter knowledge and experience – Participants willingness to respectfully identify issues and rank them fairly

10 5/10/2015Green Belt Training 10 C&E Matrix Form Process Outputs Importance Process Step Process Input Correlation of Input to OutputTotal

11 5/10/2015Green Belt Training11 Example: Heat Treat Diagnostic check for the C&E matrix:  An empty column would indicate that no input was ranked for a key output. Review and find at least one input to include  An empty cell indicates an input has no impact on the listed output Hardness as quenched Hardness as tempered Residual temperature No cracks Process Outputs 10 8 Importance Process StepProcess InputCorrelation of Input to OutputTotal Heat in harden furnace Furnace Temperature 3250 Material Hardenability 3354 Quench parteQuench Pressure Heat in temper furnace Furnace Temperature 3140

12 5/10/2015Green Belt Training12 Two Approaches  Detailed Approach – Place the detailed process outputs across the top of the matrix and rank – Place the detailed process inputs down the side of the matrix starting with the first process step and moving to the last – This approach is OK for small processes with relatively few steps

13 5/10/2015Green Belt Training13 Two Approaches High Level Approach  Step 1 1.Place the high level process outputs across the top of the matrix and rank 2.Place the high level process steps down the side of the matrix 3.Correlate process step to outputs 4.Pareto the process steps  Step 2 1.Start a new C&E matrix with the inputs from the top three or four process steps

14 5/10/2015Green Belt Training14 The Two Approaches Compared  The high level approach is recommended when first starting a project – This approach focuses the team and gives them a feeling that they are working on the important process steps first – The high level approach gives you a running start at the FMEA and other future tools  The detailed approach should only be used for processes with a relatively small number of steps and inputs

15 5/10/2015Green Belt Training15 Example: Heat Treat  A 6 sigma team wants to eliminate hardness and cracking problems in a Heat Treat area  The team has completed a process map and they are ready to create a C&E matrix to identify the inputs that have the largest impact on customer satisfaction

16 5/10/2015Green Belt Training16 Example: Heat Treat Heat in harden furnace Quench parts Inputs Parts Loading grids Parts loaded Correct time Correct temp Atmosphere OK Metallurgy OK Parts ready to Quench Quench temp OK Quench pressure OK Parts loaded Parts ready to quench Load parts into harden furnace Outputs Parts hardness OK Residual temp OK No cracks Parts ready to temper Loading grids InputsOutputs Heat in temper furnace Unload from temper furnace Ship to next operation Load in temper furnace Parts loaded Correct time Correct temp Parts ready to unload Parts loaded Parts ready to unload Parts hardness OK No cracks

17 5/10/2015Green Belt Training17 Example: Heat Treat  We will use the high level approach to help us narrow our efforts to the process steps having the most impact on customer satisfaction  We will limit this example to 4 key process outputs

18 Process Outputs 5/10/2015Green Belt Training18 Example: Heat Treat Hardness as quenched Hardness as tempered Residual temperature No cracks Process Outputs Importance Process StepProcess InputCorrelation of Input to OutputTotal

19 5/10/2015Green Belt Training19 Example: Heat Treat Hardness as quenched Hardness as tempered Residual temperature No cracks Process Outputs 10 8 Process Step Process InputCorrelation of Input to Output Importance Total Importance Ratings – Higher score indicates more importance to customer - Ratings are based on severity if output fails to conform to specification

20 5/10/2015Green Belt Training20 Example: Heat Treat Hardness as quenched Hardness as tempered Residual temperature No cracks Process Outputs 10 8 Process StepProcess Input Correlation of Input to OutputImportance Total Heat in harden furnace Furnace Temperature Material Hardenability Quench partsQuench Temperature Quench Pressure Heat in temper furnace Furnace Temperature Process Steps and Process Inputs

21 5/10/2015Green Belt Training21 Example: Heat Treat Hardness as quenched Hardness as tempered Residual temperature No cracks Process Outputs 10 8 Process StepProcess InputCorrelation of Input to OutputImportance Total Heat in harden furnace Furnace Temperature 3250 Material Hardenability 3354 Quench partsQuench Temperature Quench Pressure Heat in temper furnace Furnace Temperature 3140 Process Inputs Correlation Scores – Higher numbers indicate stronger correlations Ratings are: 3 = High correlation 2 = Moderate correlation 1 = Weak correlation 0 = No correlation

22 5/10/2015Green Belt Training22 Example: Heat Treat Hardness as quenched Hardness as tempered Residual temperature No cracks Process Outputs 10 8 Process StepProcess InputCorrelation of Input to OutputImportance Total Heat in harden furnace Furnace Temperature 3250 Material Hardenability 3354 Quench partsQuench Temperature Quench Pressure Heat in temper furnace Furnace Temperature 3140 Process Inputs Total Scores – Higher numbers indicate greater impact on process outputs Scores are product of output importance x correlation rating summed for each row. E.g., Quench pressure importance = 2x10 + 1x10 + 1x8 = 38

23 5/10/2015Green Belt Training23 Example: Heat Treat Hardness as quenched Hardness as tempered Residual temperature No cracks Process Outputs 10 8 Process StepProcess InputCorrelation of Input to Output Importance Total Heat in harden furnace Furnace Temperature 3250 Material Hardenability 3354 Quench partsQuench Temperature Quench Pressure Heat in temper furnace Furnace Temperature 3140 Diagnostic check for the C&E matrix:  An empty column would indicate that no input was ranked for a key output. Review and find at least one input to include.  An empty row would indicate an input that has no impact on the outputs listed. Did we omit a key output? Did we list a trivial input?

24 5/10/2015Green Belt Training24 Example: Heat Treat  The C&E matrix shows us that 5 key inputs from 3 process steps have the most impact on our process outputs  Highly ranked process inputs would then be evaluated with FMEA to discover: – How those inputs might fail to perform – How they might be controlled

25 5/10/2015Green Belt Training25 Example: Maintenance Support Hardness furnace temperature Temper furnace temperature Quench PressureProcess Outputs 10 Importance Process StepProcess InputCorrelation of Input to OutputTotal Calibrate instruments Planned maint schedule 3360 Quench pumps maint Planned maint schedule 330 Furnace elements maint Planned maint schedule 3360  This example shows how a maintenance area aligned their process steps and key inputs to the earlier example for Heat Treat. It was developed from a process FMEA following the Heat Treat C&E matrix.  Key inputs from the Heat Treat C&E matrix become columns (key process outputs) for this matrix.

26 5/10/2015Green Belt Training26 Change Management Checkpoint

27 5/10/2015Green Belt Training27 Update Compelling Need  In Define, Compelling Need is based on assumptions, tribal knowledge and customer feedback – Process, Structure, Culture, People  In Measure and Analyze, you NOW have Facts and Data – Reassess and update Compelling Need and Threat/Opportunity Matrix documentation  Do assumptions still hold?  Should assessment be modified based on data collected and identified root cause?  Any surprises/shocks?  Are all members of the project team aligned in terms of the need for change?

28 5/10/2015Green Belt Training28 Assessment  Are all members of the project team still aligned in terms of the need for change?  Have we framed the need for change in such a way to reflect the concerns of all stakeholders  Would each team member deliver essentially the same message regarding the need for change if asked by someone outside the team?  Who are the key stakeholders affected by this project, and how much importance does each give to the project?  How can we help others increase their sense of the need for the change?

29 5/10/2015Green Belt Training29 Update Communication Plan  Stakeholder Management Review and revise stakeholder list, if appropriate Ensure stakeholders are aware of current project status Confirm all stakeholders are engaged  Change Targets Review and revise change targets list, if appropriate Provide overview of project objective Validate VOC and VOB results Provide clear definition of expectations (Operational Definition) when beginning to collect data Ensure a clearly defined feedback plan is in place Convey messages and content appropriate to the audience

30 5/10/2015Green Belt Training30 Improve

31 5/10/2015Green Belt Training31 Improve Process Flow Generate Improvement Ideas Create ”Should Be” or Future State Map Update FMEA Implement Solution Pilot Validate Improvement

32 5/10/2015Green Belt Training32 Key Concepts  Improvement alternatives  Pilot  Validation  Future State  FMEA  Implementation

33 5/10/2015Green Belt Training33 Key Improve Phase Objectives  Lead a brainstorming activity  Create a should be/future state map  List the steps required for updating the FMEA  Lead a process improvement pilot  Analyze process capability to validate improvement gains

34 5/10/2015Green Belt Training34 Potential Solutions Generating improvement alternatives is a three step process  Define improvement criteria  Generate possible improvements  Evaluate improvements and make the best choice

35 5/10/2015Green Belt Training35 Sources of Solutions Generate Improvement Ideas Best Practices Brainstorming Ideas from other Projects Project Goals Six Thinking Hats Discoveries during Analysis Mind Mapping BenchmarkingPerformance Targets Root Cause Analysis

36 5/10/2015Green Belt Training36 Improvement Criteria Example  Quality Correct delivery and location Within time specified  Time Process cycle time reduction Time to implement  Cost Total process cost reduction Cost to implementation Cost to operate

37 5/10/2015Green Belt Training37 Prioritization Classify objectives in two groups  Musts Absolute requirements that can be used to screen out unacceptable solutions  Desirables Comparison criteria that can be used as features and characteristics for comparison of one solution to another

38 5/10/2015Green Belt Training38 Prioritization Clarify and refine improvement criteria for the desirables  Weigh the relative importance of these items Most important = 10 Compare others to most important  What about the ―musts?

39 5/10/2015Green Belt Training39 Brainstorming – What? Brainstorming is a structured method of generating unconstrained ideas/solutions and gaining engagement/involvement in the improvement process

40 5/10/2015Green Belt Training40 Brainstorming - Why Brainstorming produces many ideas/solutions in a short time  Facilitates the creative thinking process  Separates idea generation from the organizing/ assessment of the ideas How 1.Set topic and establish guidelines 2.Set a time limit and use all of that time 3.Encourage contribution from everyone 4.List all ideas presented 5.DON’T EVALUATE THE IDEAS! 6.Encourage rapid-fire activity level Desired Outcome: Lots of ideas that need further evaluation

41 5/10/2015Green Belt Training41 Rules for Effective Brainstorming  Do Understand the issue, topic, or business area Allow individuals to complete their thoughts Build on existing ideas Be brief when stating an idea Organize & evaluate after session is completed Strive for quantity  Don’t Use idea assassins Make judgments, verbal or visual, as ideas are being offered Paraphrase an individual‘s idea when scribing Dominate the session

42 5/10/2015Green Belt Training42 Evaluating Solutions Highest benefit vs amount of effort/ cost expended 1.Screen alternatives against musts criteria 2.Eliminate unacceptable alternatives 3.Make a go/no go decision

43 5/10/2015Green Belt Training43 Evaluation Matrix Concepts CriteriaImportance Rating0123 Sum of Positives Sum of Negatives Sum of Sames Weighted Sum of Positives Weighted Sum of Negatives


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