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Building a Dynamic Lighting Engine for Velvet Assassin Christian Schüler.

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Presentation on theme: "Building a Dynamic Lighting Engine for Velvet Assassin Christian Schüler."— Presentation transcript:


2 Building a Dynamic Lighting Engine for Velvet Assassin Christian Schüler

3 Velvet Assassin  3rd person stealth game  Formerly known as “Sabotage 1943”  First concepts: late 2000  Release: April 2009  Platforms PC, X360 My role: tech. dir. plus lead engine programmer

4 Engine Goals  Must look great!  (of course)  Everything is dynamically lit  Cannot use Lightmaps  Lighting is part of gameplay  If it looks dark, the player should be hidden!  Light sources become game entites.

5 Engine Goals? So, what about...  … scene visibility  … light influence  … indirect lighting (like radiosity) … if every object can possibly move, even light sources?

6 First Engine (2003)

7 Axioms (2003)  World is a loose octree of objects  Objects are OBB trees of triangles  Multi-pass lighting with stencil shadows  Occlusion culling for visibility  Indirect illumination via bounce lights

8 Shipping Engine (2009)

9 Axioms (2009)  World is a loose octree of objects  Objects are OBB trees of triangles  Hybrid single/multi-pass lighting with shadow maps  Portals for visibility  Indirect illumination via bounce lights + XBox 360 specific optimizations

10 Loose Octrees Thatcher Ulrich (2001):  Cells are overlapping (loose)  Insertion is efficient  No need to rebuild the whole octree if an element moves!  Perfect as spatial index of a dynamic scene!

11 Loose Octrees contd. Base cell Extended volume

12 Loose Octrees contd. Object inserted if inside extended volume  O(1) insertion

13 Loose Octrees contd. Used in finding out  Objects in a view frustum  Objects influenced by a light  Lights influencing an object  Broad phase for ray tests  Gameplay objects in range And everything can be dynamic!

14 OBB Trees Oriented Bounding Box Tree S. Gottschalk et al (1995)  Used on the polygon level  Build as a pre-process over mesh data  Allows efficient ray-mesh and mesh-mesh interference tests

15 OBB Trees contd. Axis aligned … … vs oriented!

16 OBB Trees contd. Construction: Principal axes (gaussian point distribution)* Minimize Box volume (possibly iterative) *eigenvectors of covariance matrix

17 Hybrid Lighting A hybrid between multi-pass and single-pass forward renderer:  One pass for each primary light  One pass for all secondary lights combined

18 Hybrid Lighting contd. Primary lights  Classic multi-pass (Doom 3 style)  One pass per primary light  Can cast shadows  The light queries for surrounding geometry

19 Hybrid Lighting contd. Secondary lights  Classic single-pass (HL2 style)  Lights collected into one pass  (shader variation based on count)  Can not cast shadows  The geometry queries for surrounding lights  (up to a maximum amount)

20 Hybrid Lighting contd. primary spot secondary points

21 Hybrid Lighting contd. primary directional secondary points

22 Bounce Light axis N L (NL) · f(axisL) Gives appearance of first bounce indirect light from a surface. Must not illuminate the surface it is placed on. Has a half-sphere influence radius determined by axis.

23 Bounce Light contd. primary spot secondary bounce

24 Bounce Light contd. primary spot 2 secondary ambients

25 Bounce Light contd.... and even back in 2003 (it‘s not rocket science)

26 So, for each frame … 1. Get all primary lights in view 2. Distribute shadow map pool 3. Render shadow maps, for each:  Render all objects contained in light frustum  Get all objects in view  Render base pass  For each object, collect nearest N secondary lights (sorted by importance) for the shader  Render additive passes for each …  … primary light: for each object that is in the view and also in the light frustum. That is why you need an efficient spatial index data structure.

27 Fog Zones A.k.a.: There has to be at least one benefit for manual portalization! Here it is: Fog Zones!

28 Fog Zones contd. portal separates fog environments

29 Fog Zones contd. … from the other side

30 Fog Zones contd. Multiply-Add is your friend! (instead of lerping against a constant fog color) C = C 0 ∙ T + S C 0 original color Tfog transmittance Sfog in-scatter = (1−T) ∙ C Fog traditionally

31 Fog Zones contd. C = ( C 0 ∙ T B + S B ) ∙ T A + S A AB portal C = C 0 ∙ ( T B ∙ T A ) + ( S B ∙ T A + S A )

32 Fog Zones contd.  Modify T and S of the new environment with T and S from the portal polygon  Calculate fog from the distance of the portal  Repeat recusively

33 Fill Optimization  Only done for XBox 360  Selected particle effects rendered into off-screen render target at half resolution to save fill rate  (against half resolution depth buffer)  Composited over the final image

34 Fill Optimization contd.

35 Again, multiply-add solves the math (in the form of pre-multiplied alpha) Off-screen target: C Target ’ = (1−A Particle ) · C Target + C Particle A Target ’ = (1−A Particle ) · A Target + A Particle Compositing: C Frame ’ = (1−A Target ) · C Frame + C Target

36 Multi-threading  XBox 360 needed it; a dual-core PC at least benefits  First thread performs all spatial queries and compiles a “drawlist”  Second thread sets shader registers, render states and submits batches  Most scenes from 300 to 1200 batches/frame

37 The End Questions?

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