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MATTER AND ENERGY CHAPTER TWO. Concepts Matter consists of elements and compounds, which in turn are made up of atoms, ions, or molecules Whenever matter.

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Presentation on theme: "MATTER AND ENERGY CHAPTER TWO. Concepts Matter consists of elements and compounds, which in turn are made up of atoms, ions, or molecules Whenever matter."— Presentation transcript:

1 MATTER AND ENERGY CHAPTER TWO

2 Concepts Matter consists of elements and compounds, which in turn are made up of atoms, ions, or molecules Whenever matter undergoes a physical or chemical change, no atoms are created or destroyed (the law of conservation of matter)

3 What is matter? Three physical states: –Solid –Liquid –Gas Two chemical forms of matter: –Elements –Compounds

4 STATES OF MATTER

5 Other facts about matter: The smallest unit of matter is ___? What is an ion? What is a molecule and how are they held together? What are subscripts and what do they represent? The three physical states of matter on earth are____.

6 Building Blocks of Matter Atoms (most basic) Molecules Ions

7 What is an element? A fundamental type of matter that has a unique set of properties and cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means Periodic table: elements arranged based on their chemical behavior

8 Some important elements Composition of the earth’s crust Inorganic compounds All compounds that do not contain carbon Crust - outermost layer of earth - mainly inorganic minerals and rocks

9 Atomic Theory All elements are made of atoms Most widely accepted scientific theory in chemistry

10 The Atom Major parts of the atom are: –Protons –Neutrons –Electrons The protons and neutrons form the ___ Electrons are located in ____ What is the atomic number? What is the mass number? What are isotopes? How do you identify isotopes in the symbol?

11 ISOTOPES

12 Molecule A second building block of matter Combination of two or more atoms of the same or different elements held together by chemical bonds Basic building blocks of any compound

13 WHAT ARE IONS? IF AN ATOM HAS 11 PROTONS AND 10 ELECTRONS IT IS A ______ION. IF IT HAS 17 PROTONS AND 18 ELECTRONS IT IS A ___ ION. HOW ARE THE CHARGES ON AN ION SHOWN AFTER THE SYMBOL?

14 Holding atoms together What does a chemical formula tell you? What are the characteristics of ionic bonds? What is an example of an ionic bond? What are covalent bonds? What is an example of a covalent bond? What are hydrogen bonds? What is an example of a hydrogen bond compound?

15 Covalent bonds

16 Other important compounds

17 Hydrogen bonds

18 What are organic compounds? What element do all organic compounds contain? What other elements can be also combined? Organic compounds can be natural or synthetic. Most organic compounds are covalent bonds.

19 P 38 Organic Molecules –Monomers –Polymers

20 Types of organic compounds: Hydrocarbons made up of ___ Chlorinated hydrocarbons –An example would be: Chlorofluorocarbons - –An example would be: Simple carbohydrates Monomers Polymers Complex carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids

21 MORE ON PROTEINS: ALPHA-AMINO ACIDS - 20 DIFFERENT MONOMERS - # & SEQUENCE SPECIFIED BY GENETIC CODE IN DNA MOLECULES IN CELLS NUCLEIC ACIDS - DNA & RNA - MADE BY LINKING MONOMERS CALLED NUCLEOTIDES TOGETHER

22 GENES - SEUQENCES OF NUCLEOTIDES - CARRIES A CODE WHICH CONTAINS TRAITS PASSED FROM PARENTS TO OFFSPRING GENOME - ALL OF THE GENETIC INFORMATION FOR AN ORGANISM. What are GENE MUTATIONS? What are CHROMOSOMES?

23 Matter quality A measure of how useful a matter resource is - based on availability and concentration High quality matter - organized, concentrated and usually found near earth’s surface Low quality - disorganized, dilute,often deep underground or dispersed in the ocean or atmosphere - have little potential use as a matter resource.

24 Matter Quality

25 WHAT IS ENERGY? What is ENERGY ? What is WORK? What is a FORCE? Forms of energy - light, heat, electricity, chemical energy, mechanical energy, and nuclear energy

26 Types of energy What is Kinetic energy? What does it depend on? Examples: wind, flowing water, electricity, electromagnetic radiation, heat, temperature What is Potential energy? What does it depend on? Potential energy changes into kinetic energy etc.

27 Energy Kinetic –Heat –Electromagnetic Radiation Potential Renewable Nonrenewable

28 Kinetic Energy Heat (thermal energy) –Total kinetic energy of all moving atoms, ions, or molecules in an object, a body of water, or the atmosphere –Faster moving particles = warmer

29 Temperature vs Heat What is temperature? –The average speed of the motion of the molecules in a given sample of matter What is heat? –The total kinetic energy of all the moving molecules within a given substance

30 How is heat transferred? What is convection? What is Conduction? What is Radiation?

31

32 Kinetic Energy Electromagnetic radiation –Energy travels in the form of a wave as a result of changes in electrical and magnetic fields –Each form of electromagnetic radiation has a Wavelength Energy content Short wavelengths = more energy (gamma rays)

33 Electromagnetic spectrum Ionizing radiation - harmful forms of electromagnetic radiation Non-ionizing radiation - does not contain enough energy to form ions

34 Ionizing Radiation – from natural or background sources –Can come from space, soil, food, etc. –Has energy to knock electrons from atoms Can disrupt living cells, interfere with body processes and cause cancer. –Nonionizing radiation doesn not contain enough energy to form ions.

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36 Energy quality An energy source’s ability to do useful work High-quality - organized or concentrated - can perform useful work –Electricity, coal, gasoline, sunlight,uranium Low - quality - disorganized or dispersed- can perform little useful work –Heat in water, air, etc.

37 Changes in Matter Physical Chemical Nuclear

38 Changes in matter What is a Physical change? What are some examples of physical changes? All changes involve energy - taken in or released What is a Chemical change ? What is an example? What is a CHEMICAL Equation? Reactants --> products

39 Law of Conservation of Matter All the matter on earth is here and cannot be “thrown away” - there is no “away” Earth is a closed system Matter cannot be created nor destroyed Matter is not consumed

40 Law of Conservation of matter and energy Applies to nuclear changes because a certain amount of mass (matter) is changed into energy. The TOTAL amount of matter and energy involved remains the same

41 Nuclear Changes Natural radioactivity- when nuclei of certain isotopes spontaneously break down into one or more different isotopes Three types: –Natural radioactive decay –Nuclear fission –Nuclear fusion

42 Natural radioactive decay Unstable isotopes - radioisotopes - spontaneously break down and emit: Alpha particles - positively charged helium nuclei Beta particles - high speed electrons Gamma rays - high speed ionizing electromagnetic radiation

43 Half-life Rate of decay Time needed for one half of the nuclei in a radioisotope to decay and emit their radiation Eventually forms a new element Is not affected by temp. pressure, chemical changes, etc. Rule is store for 10 half-lives for safety

44 Nuclear fission Nuclei of atoms with large mass numbers are split into lighter nuclei Neutrons used to split Releases more neutrons and energy Critical mass - needed to start reaction

45 More on fission Atomic bombs - uncontrolled nuclear fission Damage cells Used in nuclear power plants

46 Nuclear fusion Two isotopes of light elements are combined under great heat and pressure to form a heavier nucleus Harder to initiate Thermonuclear weapons

47 Net Energy Only Energy that really counts Energy Quality – we want to use resources that produce the most net energy and expend very little energy P 375 Net energy yield: the usable amount of high-quality energy available from an energy resource

48 What is energy efficiency? A measure of how much useful work is accomplished by a particular input of energy into a system Always measured as a percent (%) Affects life because you get and use high quality matter and energy, use it and add low quality heat and waste back into the environment.

49 Energy Inefficiency Costs $570,000 per minute (US) Due to: –Data Centers (electronic clouds) – use only 10% of the electric energy they pull from the grid – other 90% ends up as low-quality heat that flows into the environment –Internal combustion engine – motor vehicles (wastes 80% of the energy in the fuel) –Nuclear power plants – produce electricity but waste about 75% of the energy in the nuclear fuel –Coal-fired power plants – wastes about 65% of the energy that is released by burning coal

50 Nuclear Power Plants Thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor Heat is used the generate steam, which drives a steam turbine connected to an electric generator This produces electricity 435 nuclear power plants

51 Light Water Reactors Pressurized water reactors Boiling water reactors

52 How Reactors Work Light-water reactors (LWRs)

53 LWRs Core –fuel rods – packed with pellets = 1 ton of coal Provide fuel for nuclear reactors –control rods - absorb neutrons and slow reaction down –water - keeps core cool(coolant), slows down the neutrons so that they are at the right speed to trigger the next reaction (moderator) and produces steam to make electricity high pressure steam from reactor is used to heat water which then produces steam used to run a turbine

54 Pressurized Water Reactor Constitutes the large majority of all Western nuclear power plants Light water reactor The primary coolant (water) is pumped under high pressure to the reactor core where it is heated by the energy generated by the fission of atoms The water then flows to a steam generator where it transfers its thermal energy to a secondary system where steam is generated and flows to turbines

55 Pressurized Water Reactor Animation ?title=File%3APWR_nuclear_power_plant_ animation.ogvhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php ?title=File%3APWR_nuclear_power_plant_ animation.ogv

56 Boiling water reactors Light water nuclear reactor used to generate electrical power Main difference from PWR: the reactor core in the PWR does not boil the water Developed by Idaho National Laboratory and General Electric in the mid-1950s

57 Boiling water reactors

58 Turbine Greek: “Turbulence” A rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work Purpose of steam turbine: convert the heat contained in steam into mechanical energy

59 TVA Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant

60 Early examples of turbines Windmills Waterwheels

61 Wind Farm P Jigsaw

62 First law of thermodynamics In all physical and chemical changes, energy is neither created nor destroyed but it may be converted from one form to another Energy input always equals energy output You can’t get something for nothing - cannot get more energy out of a system than is put in!!!

63 Second law of thermodynamics When energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded to lower quality less useful energy usually heat lost to the environment We ALWAYS end up with less useful energy than we started with. An incandescent light bulb - 5 % light, 95% heat

64 More on 2nd law We can NEVER recycle or reuse high quality energy to do useful work. You get high quality matter and energy in your body, you use it and you add low quality waste matter and heat to the environment.


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