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Variable Effort Allocations in Workload Models Using Quantitative Productivity Tools to Guide Academic Decision-Making: A workshop for deans, associate/assistant.

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Presentation on theme: "Variable Effort Allocations in Workload Models Using Quantitative Productivity Tools to Guide Academic Decision-Making: A workshop for deans, associate/assistant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Variable Effort Allocations in Workload Models Using Quantitative Productivity Tools to Guide Academic Decision-Making: A workshop for deans, associate/assistant deans and budget managers CCAS / University of Cincinnati 25 & 26 March 2011 Alan R. White Dean, Thomas Harriot College of Arts and Sciences Professor, Department of Biology East Carolina University

2 There’s nothing new... Ernest L. Boyer, 1990, Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities for the professoriate. Howard Mancing, 1994, A theory of faculty workload. ADFL Bulletin. 25 (3): Gary S. Krahenbuhl, 1997, The Integration of Faculty Responsibilities and Institutional Needs. Arizona State University.

3 There’s nothing new... As legislatures and governing boards look for ways to provide access to higher education at a reasonable cost, attention frequently turns to the teaching loads of university faculty. The popular view is that faculty members are underutilized in teaching and preoccupied with their research. A redirection of faculty effort, away from research and toward teaching, is a common prescription for providing more classes without increasing costs. Gary S. Krahenbuhl, Arizona State Univ., 1997

4 Workload Management at the College Level Workloads are implemented by department chairs in an interaction with individual faculty members. Deans must manage the workload expectations of various departments and disciplines across the whole college.

5 Defining “Workload” Not just teaching load; Student Credit Hours Workload = Teaching + Research + Service Course Load Allocations (Fall/Spring) 4/4 3/3 3/2 2/2 1/1 0/1 Percent Effort Allocations (T / R / S) 40% / 40% / 20% 20% / 60% / 20%

6 What do we mean by: Variable Workload Differentiated Workload Variable Effort Allocation Flexible Workload Allocation Defining “Workload”

7 Misconceptions Governing Bodies and the General Public (Board of Trustees, legislators, your neighbors) Think we in higher education work only 12 hours per week (4/4 = 4 courses X 3 hrs = 12 hrs/week) (2/2 = 2 courses X 3 hrs = 6 hrs/week)

8 Misconceptions Governing Bodies and the General Public (Board of Trustees, legislators, your neighbors) Don’t understand what we do. Don’t understand the research/scholarship component of the university mission. Don’t understand how we spend our time

9 Governing Bodies and the General Public The integration of various activities is not unique to university faculty members; it is common in the professions. The typical surgeon spends a small portion of the day in surgery, but the time spent in such activities as patient care, continuing medical education and service to a hospital board or the AMA is important to his/her professional development and practice. Attorneys spend important time in court, but their success in litigation is strongly influenced by their other professional activities. Simply put, a surgeon’s work extends beyond the operating room, the lawyer’s beyond the courtroom, and the professor’s beyond the classroom. It is the integration of a rich set of activities that leads to full effectiveness in each profession, and full benefits for the patient, client, or student. Gary S. Krahenbuhl, Arizona State Univ., 1997

10 Governing Bodies and the General Public Public View T/R/S are distinct, compartmentalized activities that compete for time – zero sum – more of one means less of another. Focus on transmission of knowledge. Academic View T/R/S are overlapping and integrated efforts that lead to generation, transmission and application of knowledge.

11 Faculty Considerations Faculty Reaction Most faculty members also don’t understand what their colleagues in different disciplines do. Humanities, fine and performing arts, social sciences, natural sciences, mathematics, education, business, health sciences. Concern that workloads are imposed on faculty rather than negotiated. You’re using a spreadsheet to determine my annual performance evaluation.

12 Course Definitions What is a course? Does 2/2 = 2/2? Laboratory courses Large auditorium lecture sections Seminar courses Undergraduate vs Masters vs PhD Research supervision Thesis and dissertation supervision

13 Tenure and Promotion Considerations Tenure and Promotion Expectations T & P criteria are paramount Workload assignments should not interfere or conflict with T & P expectations Variation from standard workload expectations should be used with caution (if at all) with pre-tenure faculty.

14 Workload Policy Considerations

15 Goals of Workload Management Models At all levels (university, college, department, program, faculty): Meet the mission expectations Assure that teaching and scholarship expectations are met Assure understanding of all parties Provide framework for evaluation

16 Features of Flexible and Differentiated Workload Models Allow faculty members to deviate from standard workloads Provide flexibility for faculty and disciplines Not mandatory - provide for negotiated agreement, rather than imposed workload assignments

17 Features of Flexible and Differentiated Workload Models Recognize aptitudes and preferences of individual faculty members Recognize stages of careers; Career trajectory Recognize discipline differences

18 An Example from the University of North Carolina System

19 University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model 15 University Campuses Undergraduate, Comprehensive Masters, Historically Black Institutions,Research II, Research I (flagships) SCH Enrollment Change Funding Model

20 University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model Base workload is 12 hours/semester Undergraduate 12 3 hrs per course = 4 courses or 4/4 Graduate 9 3 hrs per course = 3 courses or 3/3

21 University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model What is a course? Standard 3 hour course Section Size: Undergraduate enrollment can be 20 to over 500 Introductory or General Education Upper division undergraduate Undergraduate vs Masters vs PhD

22 University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model What is a course? Laboratory courses Seminar courses; Special Topics Internships; Practicum; Student Teaching Research supervision Thesis and dissertation supervision

23 University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model Discipline Considerations General Education – large sections Standard 3 hr didactic courses Natural Sciences with labs Music, theater, dance, fine arts – practice Math, English and Foreign Languages – small sections

24 University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model Discipline Considerations Professional Programs NursingHealth Sciences EducationBusiness EngineeringSocial Work

25 University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model SCH Production A general measure of scope of instruction Quantitative, NOT qualitative Can set up competition; zero sum game

26 University of North Carolina System: Enrollment Change Funding Model Designed for system-level allocation of resources to whole institutions Based on a growth model Accounts for some variability from Disciplines and Level of Instruction Attempts to be equitable across a complex state-wide system

27 University of North Carolina System: Enrollment Change Funding Model

28

29 Developing College-wide Strategies

30 Workload Policies or SOPs Workload = Teaching / Research / Service Flexibility for different department and faculty situations Recognizes change over time Negotiated agreement, rather than an imposed workload on a faculty member General Considerations

31 Workload Policies or SOPs Focus is on the department collective load Department chair has responsibility to balance individual expectations with collective expectations for the department. Teaching/Research/Service – all three. Chair must balance SCH production, course offerings, general education with faculty scholarship and research General Considerations

32 Workload Policies or SOPs Tenure and promotion expectations remain Used mostly for post-tenure faculty Annual evaluations must align with negotiated workload expectations. Rewards (salary increases) should also align with workload and evaluation. Special Considerations

33 Workload Policies or SOPs Keep SCH production up. Like it or not, dropping SCH production will be noticed. Modify frequency and pattern of course offerings for efficiency. Offer less oftenCross-listing Switch to every other semester or year Increase class size, while maintaining instructional quality Department Strategies

34 Workload Policies or SOPs Buy Outs from External Sources External funding pays to hire an instructor Grants, contracts Federal, state, private foundations Corporate grants Other universities Other Department Considerations

35 Workload Policies or SOPs Buy Outs from Internal Sources Funding from other institutional units Administrative duties Interim appointments Research centers or institutes Special funded projects Other Department Considerations

36 East Carolina Workload Analysis Model

37 ECU Workload Analysis Spreadsheet Department Data File

38 ECU Workload Analysis Spreadsheet Department Data File

39 ECU Workload Analysis Spreadsheet Department Workload Analysis

40 ECU Workload Analysis Spreadsheet Department Workload Analysis

41 Features from Other Models Univ Colo –Denver; Arizona State Univ; Iowa State Univ Assume 40/40/20 for all faculty Can adjust any category up or down No less than 10% in any category Must apply for adjustment Agreement by faculty, chair, dean Changes active for one semester, one year Reverts back to default 40/40/20 at end of agreement

42 Questions and Discussion Alan R. White Dean, Thomas Harriot College of Arts and Sciences Professor, Department of Biology East Carolina University


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