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Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e

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Presentation on theme: "Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e
James M. Henslin Chapter Eighteen: Religion This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

2 What is Religion? Emile Durkheim said, “A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things.” Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

3 Three Elements of Religion
Beliefs that Some Things are Sacred Practices Centering on Things Considered Sacred A Moral Community Resulting from a Group’s Beliefs and Practices Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

4 The Functionalist Perspective
Questions about Ultimate Meaning Emotional Comfort Social Solidarity Guidelines for Everyday Life Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

5 The Functionalist Perspective
Social Control Adaptation Support for the Government Social Change Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

6 Functional Equivalents of Religion
Organizations Like Alcoholics Anonymous Psychotherapy Humanism Transcendental Meditation Political Parties Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

7 Dysfunctions of Religion
Religion as Justification for Persecution War and Terrorism Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

8 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
Religious Symbols Rituals, Ceremonies, Repetitive Practices Beliefs—Cosmology Religious Experience—Contact with God Community Shared Through Symbols, Rituals, and Beliefs Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

9 Conflict Perspective Marx’s Opium of the People
Legitimization of Social Inequalities Social Arrangements Represent God’s Desires Divine Rights of Kings Pharaoh as God Hindu Caste System Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

10 Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism
Weber—Religion Held the Key to Modernization Protestant Ethic Personal Duty to Make and Invest Money A Move away from Traditional Thrift Spend Only on Necessities, Reinvest the Rest Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

11 The World’s Major Religions
Judaism Originated 4,000 Years Ago Originated in Mesopotamia God’s Chosen People Through Covenant with Abraham Fundamental Change in Religion to Monotheism Contemporary—Orthodox, Reform, Conservative Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

12 The World’s Major Religions
Christianity Also Monotheistic Believe Jesus Christ is Messiah Born in Poverty to a Virgin At about 30 Jesus Began Teaching Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

13 The World’s Major Religions
Christianity 12 Main Followers—Apostles Belief in Christ’s Resurrection Split to Greek Orthodoxy in 11th Century, Reformation in 16th Century Currently about 2 Billion Adherents Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

14 The World’s Major Religions
Islam World’s Third Monotheistic Religion Founded by Muhammad (Born in Mecca) About Age 40 had Visions from God Visions and Teachings Written in Koran Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

15 The World’s Major Religions
Islam Muhammad Founded a Theocracy in Median Two Main Branches—Sunni and Shiite Shiites More Conservative and Fundamentalist Consider Bible Sacred but Koran Final Word Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

16 The World’s Major Religions
Hinduism No Specific Founder Chief Religion in India for 4,000 Years No Canonical Scripture Brahmanas, Bhagavad-Gita, and Upanishads Expound Moral Virtues Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

17 The World’s Major Religions
Hinduism People Make Sacrifices to gods Polytheistic—Many gods Central Belief is Karma—Spiritual Progress No Final Judgment—Reincarnation Spiritual Perfection Results in Nirvana Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

18 The World’s Major Religions
Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama Founded in about 600 B.C. Four Noble Truths Existence is Suffering Origin of Suffering is Desire Suffering Ceases when Desire Ceases Follow “Noble Eightfold Path” to End Desire Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

19 The World’s Major Religions
Buddhism—Eightfold Path Right Belief Right Resolve Right Speech Right Conduct Right Occupation or Living Right Effort Right-Mindedness Right Ecstasy Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

20 The World’s Major Religions
Confucianism K’ung Fu-tsu Born in China 551 B.C. Public Official Distressed by Corruption in Government Urged Social Reform Developed System of Morality Based on Peace, Justice, Universal Order Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

21 The World’s Major Religions
Confucianism Teaching Written in the Analects Basic Moral Principle—Jen Loyalty and Morality above Self-Interest Confucian Golden Rule Taught the “Middle Way” Originally Atheistic, Gods Added along the Way Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

22 Types of Religious Groups
Cults Begin with Charismatic Leader Most Popular Religions Started this Way Most Cults Fail Sects Loosely Organized and Fairly Small Emphasize Personal Salvation Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

23 Types of Religious Groups
Churches Highly Bureaucratized National and International Relationship with God Less Intense Ecclesia State Religions Part of Cultural Identification Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

24 When Religion and Culture Conflict
Members Reject Dominant Culture Members Reject Specific Elements of a Culture Society Rejects Religious Group Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

25 Religion in the U.S. Characteristics of Members Social Class
Race and Ethnicity Age Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

26 Religion in the U.S. Characteristics of Religious Groups Diversity
Pluralism and Freedom Competition and Recruitment Commitment Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

27 Religion in the U.S. Characteristics of Religious Groups Toleration
Fundamentalist Revival The Electronic Church The Internet and Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

28 Secularization of Religion and Culture
The Secularization of Religion The Secularization of Culture Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

29 The Future of Religion Religion Thrives
People Will Always Ponder Purpose Science Cannot Tell Us About… The Existence of God The Purpose of Life An Afterlife Morality Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005

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