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Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20051 Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e James M. Henslin Chapter Eighteen: Religion James M. Henslin.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20051 Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e James M. Henslin Chapter Eighteen: Religion James M. Henslin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e James M. Henslin Chapter Eighteen: Religion James M. Henslin Chapter Eighteen: Religion This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Emile Durkheim said, “A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things.” What is Religion?

3 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Beliefs that Some Things are Sacred  Practices Centering on Things Considered Sacred  A Moral Community Resulting from a Group’s Beliefs and Practices Three Elements of Religion

4 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Questions about Ultimate Meaning  Emotional Comfort  Social Solidarity  Guidelines for Everyday Life The Functionalist Perspective

5 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Social Control  Adaptation  Support for the Government  Social Change The Functionalist Perspective

6 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Organizations Like Alcoholics Anonymous  Psychotherapy  Humanism  Transcendental Meditation  Political Parties Functional Equivalents of Religion

7 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Religion as Justification for Persecution  War and Terrorism Dysfunctions of Religion

8 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Religious Symbols  Rituals, Ceremonies, Repetitive Practices  Beliefs—Cosmology  Religious Experience—Contact with God  Community Shared Through Symbols, Rituals, and Beliefs Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

9 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Marx’s Opium of the People  Legitimization of Social Inequalities  Social Arrangements Represent God’s Desires  Divine Rights of Kings  Pharaoh as God  Hindu Caste System Conflict Perspective

10 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Weber—Religion Held the Key to Modernization  Protestant Ethic  Personal Duty to Make and Invest Money  A Move away from Traditional Thrift  Spend Only on Necessities, Reinvest the Rest Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism

11 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Judaism  Originated 4,000 Years Ago  Originated in Mesopotamia  God’s Chosen People Through Covenant with Abraham  Fundamental Change in Religion to Monotheism  Contemporary—Orthodox, Reform, Conservative The World’s Major Religions

12 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Christianity  Also Monotheistic  Believe Jesus Christ is Messiah  Born in Poverty to a Virgin  At about 30 Jesus Began Teaching The World’s Major Religions

13 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Christianity  12 Main Followers—Apostles  Belief in Christ’s Resurrection  Split to Greek Orthodoxy in 11th Century, Reformation in 16th Century  Currently about 2 Billion Adherents The World’s Major Religions

14 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Islam  World’s Third Monotheistic Religion  Founded by Muhammad (Born in Mecca)  About Age 40 had Visions from God  Visions and Teachings Written in Koran The World’s Major Religions

15 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Islam  Muhammad Founded a Theocracy in Median  Two Main Branches—Sunni and Shiite  Shiites More Conservative and Fundamentalist  Consider Bible Sacred but Koran Final Word The World’s Major Religions

16 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Hinduism  No Specific Founder  Chief Religion in India for 4,000 Years  No Canonical Scripture  Brahmanas, Bhagavad-Gita, and Upanishads Expound Moral Virtues The World’s Major Religions

17 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Hinduism  People Make Sacrifices to gods  Polytheistic—Many gods  Central Belief is Karma—Spiritual Progress  No Final Judgment—Reincarnation  Spiritual Perfection Results in Nirvana The World’s Major Religions

18 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Buddhism  Siddhartha Gautama Founded in about 600 B.C.  Four Noble Truths  Existence is Suffering  Origin of Suffering is Desire  Suffering Ceases when Desire Ceases  Follow “Noble Eightfold Path” to End Desire The World’s Major Religions

19 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Buddhism—Eightfold Path  Right Belief  Right Resolve  Right Speech  Right Conduct The World’s Major Religions  Right Occupation or Living  Right Effort  Right-Mindedness  Right Ecstasy

20 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Confucianism  K’ung Fu-tsu Born in China 551 B.C.  Public Official Distressed by Corruption in Government  Urged Social Reform  Developed System of Morality Based on Peace, Justice, Universal Order The World’s Major Religions

21 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Confucianism  Teaching Written in the Analects  Basic Moral Principle—Jen  Loyalty and Morality above Self-Interest  Confucian Golden Rule  Taught the “Middle Way”  Originally Atheistic, Gods Added along the Way The World’s Major Religions

22 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Cults  Begin with Charismatic Leader  Most Popular Religions Started this Way  Most Cults Fail  Sects  Loosely Organized and Fairly Small  Emphasize Personal Salvation Types of Religious Groups

23 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Churches  Highly Bureaucratized  National and International  Relationship with God Less Intense  Ecclesia  State Religions  Part of Cultural Identification Types of Religious Groups

24 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Members Reject Dominant Culture  Members Reject Specific Elements of a Culture  Society Rejects Religious Group When Religion and Culture Conflict

25 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Characteristics of Members  Social Class  Race and Ethnicity  Age Religion in the U.S.

26 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Characteristics of Religious Groups  Diversity  Pluralism and Freedom  Competition and Recruitment  Commitment Religion in the U.S.

27 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Characteristics of Religious Groups  Toleration  Fundamentalist Revival  The Electronic Church  The Internet and Religion Religion in the U.S.

28 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  The Secularization of Religion  The Secularization of Culture Secularization of Religion and Culture

29 Chapter 18: Religion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon  Religion Thrives  People Will Always Ponder Purpose  Science Cannot Tell Us About…  The Existence of God  The Purpose of Life  An Afterlife  Morality The Future of Religion


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