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Bacteria Described species: 4 000 Estimated total species: 1 000 000 The Convention on Biological Diversity

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Presentation on theme: "Bacteria Described species: 4 000 Estimated total species: 1 000 000 The Convention on Biological Diversity"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bacteria Described species: Estimated total species: The Convention on Biological Diversity

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3 Helicobacter pylori

4 1893 Bizzozero, G (1893) Arch. Mikr. Anat. 42:

5 Janulaityte-Gunther D, Gunther T, Pavilonis A, Kupcinskas L. What Bizzozero never could imagine - Helicobacter pylori today and tomorrow. Medicina (Kaunas). 2003;39(6):542-9

6 The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005 "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease" Barry J. Marshall Australia J. Robin Warren Australia b b. 1951

7 Prix Nobel 2005 en Sciences Colloque de la Faculté des Sciences ….nous guideront vers une appréciation des raisons scientifiques de ces Prix Nobel…

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9 . Prevalence and Incidence of Peptic Ulcer Prevalance Rate: 1 in 54 or 5 million people in USA Incidence extrapolations for USA for Peptic Ulcer: 7 per minute Lifetime risk for Peptic Ulcer: 1 in 10 Americans over lifetime Probably most common chronic disease of humans. Human populations throughout the world affected. Incidence increases with age and occurs earlier and at increased rates in the developing world and lower socioeconomic groups. Up to 90% of some populations affected. …. en 1987!

10 Excerpts from Causes of Peptic Ulcer: a Selective Epidemiological Review by M. Susser, published in the Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 20 pp , 1967 Thus the mothers of ulcer patients tended to have psychogenic symptoms, and to be striving, obsessional, and dominant in the home; fathers tended to be steady, unassertive, and passive." "...certain patterns of relationships were more common in 'ulcer' families. Thus the mothers of ulcer patients tended to have psychogenic symptoms, and to be striving, obsessional, and dominant in the home; fathers tended to be steady, unassertive, and passive." dependence engendered by a powerful mother and demands of adult roles." "The description of these families...emphasizes the conflict in duodenal ulcer patients between dependence engendered by a powerful mother and demands of adult roles." This does not exclude the possibility that a major single causal effect awaits discovery "The variations in peptic ulcer in different geographical, historical, and social contexts are unequivocal evidence of the influence of ways of life in this disease. The specific elements that contribute to the variations probably include diet, alcohol, cigarette smoking, emotional strain, personality, and genotype.... This does not exclude the possibility that a major single causal effect awaits discovery."

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14 Warren J. R. (1983) Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis Lancet (i): 1273 Marshall B. J. & Warren J. R. (1984) Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration Lancet (i):

15 « I preferred to believe my eyes, not the medical textbooks of the medical fraternity » R. Warren (2002)

16 Koch's Postulates I. The organism, a germ, should always be found microscopically in the bodies of animals having the disease and in that disease only; it should occur in such numbers and be distributed in such a manner as to explain the lesions of the disease. II. The germ should be obtained from the diseased animal and grown outside the body. III. The inoculation of these germs, grown in pure cultures, freed by successive transplantations from the smallest particle of matter taken from the original animal, should produce the same disease in a susceptible animal. IV. The germs should be found in the diseased areas so produced in the animal.

17 Marshall BJ, Armstrong JA, McGechie DB, Glancy RJ (1985) Attempt to fulfil Koch's postulates for pyloric Campylobacter. A volunteer with histologically normal gastric mucosa received pyloric campylobacter by mouth. A mild illness developed, which lasted 14 days. Histologically proven gastritis was present on the tenth day after the ingestion of bacteria, but this had largely resolved by the fourteenth day. The syndrome of acute pyloric campylobacter gastritis is described. It is proposed that this disorder may progress to a chronic infection which predisposes to peptic ulceration. Med J Aust Apr 15;142(8):436-9.

18 PATHOGENIC PROPERTIES OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI  - Adheres to gastric epithelium  - Lives within mucous gel layer overlying gastric epithelium  - Penetrates intercellular junctions  - Invades gastric glands and canaliculi of parietal cells  - Produces cytotoxins that may play role in pathogenicity  - Induces epithelial cytolysis and disrupts intercellular junctions  - Increases permeability of mucous layer to hydrogen ions and pepsin  - Enables gastric acid and pepsin to create ulcer craters  - Evades host immune defenses  - Damages tissue  - Secretes urease to produce ammonia, which protects it from gastric acid

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24 Famous People with Helicobacters! I am compiling a bit of a list: Can you add to it? 1.Ayatollah Khomeini; (Died from intestinal bleeding, most Iranians have HP). 2.Lorne Greene; (Of Bonanza fame. Died from peptic ulcers and pneumonia complication, I only know what I saw on the cover of National Enquirer). 3.James Joyce; (Family history of stomach cancer and died of a perforated ulcer as per your letter). Most people born before 1940 would have had HP as adults, especially in Ireland. 4.George Bush; (At one time in the 60's had a duodenal ulcer; lots of men in the CIA have HP because they have lived overseas, particularly Latin America.) 5.Pope John Paul II; (Had gastric bleeding in the 1980's. Most Popes have HP). 6.Imelda Marcos; (Had gastritis and gastric bleeding during her N.Y. court case; most Filipinos have HP). 7.Stonewall Jackson; (Was known as a terribly grumpy dyspeptic by his doctor!). HP infection rate was very high in USA before My great grandfather. (A Scott. Bled to death in hospital with a duodenal ulcer. Family blamed his fondness of citrus fruit!) 9.My father in-law; (Gastric problems ever since WW2. Blamed army food! Better since treated for HP in 1993!).

25 Prix Nobel 2005 en Sciences Colloque de la Faculté des Sciences …nous présenteront les domaines de recherches et d’applications concernés…

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29 cgi?CMD=search&DB=PubMed

30 Nature 388, (07 August 1997) The complete genome sequence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori JEAN-F. TOMB*, OWEN WHITE*, ANTHONY R. KERLAVAGE*, REBECCA A. CLAYTON*, GRANGER G. SUTTON*, ROBERT D. FLEISCHMANN*, KAREN A. KETCHUM*, HANS PETER KLENK*, STEVEN GILL*, BRIAN A. DOUGHERTY*, KAREN NELSON*, JOHN QUACKENBUSH*, LIXIN ZHOU*, EWEN F. KIRKNESS*, SCOTT PETERSON*, BRENDAN LOFTUS*, DELWOOD RICHARDSON*, ROBERT DODSON*, HANIF G. KHALAK*, ANNA GLODEK*, KEITH MCKENNEY*, LISA M. FITZEGERALD*, NORMAN LEE*, MARK D. ADAMS*, ERIN K. HICKEY*, DOUGLAS E. BERG†, JEANINE D. GOCAYNE*, TERESA R. UTTERBACK*, JEREMY D. PETERSON*, JENNY M. KELLEY*, MATTHEW D. COTTON*, JANICE M. WEIDMAN*, CLAIRE FUJII*, CHERYL BOWMAN*, LARRY WATTHEY*, ERIK WALLIN‡, WILLIAM S. HAYES§, MARK BORODOVSKY§, * The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA † Department of Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Washington University St Louis, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA ‡ Department of Biochemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S Stockholm, Sweden § School of Biology, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA SRI International, Artificial Intelligence Center, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA ¶ Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA

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32 org/2005/content/helico2 005.htm

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35 Prix Nobel 2005 en Sciences Colloque de la Faculté des Sciences ….domaines autour desquels s’articulent également des recherches poursuivies en Faculté des Sciences….

36 « The development of an efficacious vaccine against infection with Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma, remains a challenge (..) We have evaluated the potential of recombinant Lactobacillus strains producing H. pylori urease B (UreB) subunit to deliver this antigen to the gastrointestinal tract. » B. Corthésy, S. Boris, P. Isler, C. Grangette & A. Mercenier J. Inf. Diseases (2005)192:

37 … Reduction of Helicobacter felis load in the stomachs of mice was observed only after immunization with the Alr- mutant strain MD007 (25). Our data (..) mark the Alr- MD007 mutant as a substantially improved delivery system that is also applicable to weak antigens. (25) Palumbo E… Deghorain M… & Hols P Knockout of the alanine racemase gene in Lactobacillus plantarum results in septation defects and cell wall perforation. FEMS Microbiol Lett (2004)

38 T’en fais pas, Papy, c’est pas grave! Camille 4 ans Camille 4 ans

39 Toute ressemblance avec un collègue mort ou vif est purement fortuite

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