Presentation on theme: "PRIOR KNOWLEDGE PRINCIPLE in MULTIMEDIA LEARNING"— Presentation transcript:
1 PRIOR KNOWLEDGE PRINCIPLE in MULTIMEDIA LEARNING The learner’s prior knowledge is the most important learning prerequisite, it is clear that instructional principles should take prior knowledge into account.
2 The Information Processing Model Working memory (a.k.a. short-termmemory) limitations profoundly influence the character of human information processing, and to considerable extent, shape human cognitive structureLong-term Memory contains huge amounts of domain-specific knowledge that can be described as hierarchically organized schemas. The controlled use ofschemas require use of workingmemory resources.Working memory and long-term memory each play important roles in the learner’s information processing system.
3 Experienced Learners Novice or Beginner Instruction-Based Guidance and The Learners’ SchemasNovice or BeginnerLearnersExperiencedLack sophisticated schemasassociated with task at handInstruction-based guidance act asa means of constructingschemas and if effective, act as ameans of enhancing theirlearningFailure to provide guidanceresults in learners resorting toproblem-solving search strategiesthat are cognitively inefficientbecause they impose a heavyworking memory load.Possess a large number ofdomain-specific schemas andbring them to the processof constructing mentalrepresentation of a task.Additional instruction-basedguidance may not be neededbecause their schemas providefull guidanceProvision of additionalguidance can result in conflictbetween schemas andinstruction-based guidanceThe learner’s level of prior knowledge or expertise should guide teachers and instructional designers on the level of instruction-based guidance they provide.
4 Instructional Techniques/Effects Interact with the Learner’s Level of Prior Knowledge or ExpertiseSPLITATTENTIONEFFECTREDUNDANCYMODALITYWORKEDEXAMPLEISOLATEDELEMENTSIMAGINATIONSeveral instructional techniques/effects have been designed to facilitate schema construction and automation by reducing working memory load. However strong evidence has emerged that the effectiveness these techniques depend very much on levels of learner expertise.“Instructional techniques that are highly effective with inexperienced learnerscan lose their effectiveness and even have negative consequences when usedwith experienced learners” (Kalyuga, 2003).
5 Major Implication for Instructional Design “The need to tailor instructionalformats and procedures to thelearner’s changing levels of expertise”(Kalyuga,2005).
6 REFERENCES & CREDITSInformation Processing Model (online image) Retrieved on April 12,2012 fromKalyuga, S., Ayres, P., Chandler P.,& Sweller, J. (2003). Expertise reversal effect.Educational Psychologist, 38,Kalyuga, S. (2005). Prior knowledge principle. In R. Mayer (Ed), Cambridgehandbook of multimedia learning (pp ). New York : Cambridge UniversityPress.Light bulb (online image) Retrieved on April 11 ,2012fromThe learner (online image) Retrieved on April 14, 2012 frompushed-or-pulled/