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Presentation on theme: "PRIOR KNOWLEDGE PRINCIPLE in MULTIMEDIA LEARNING"— Presentation transcript:

The learner’s prior knowledge is the most important learning prerequisite, it is clear that instructional principles should take prior knowledge into account.

2 The Information Processing Model
Working memory (a.k.a. short-term memory) limitations profoundly influence the character of human information processing, and to considerable extent, shape human cognitive structure Long-term Memory contains huge amounts of domain-specific knowledge that can be described as hierarchically organized schemas. The controlled use of schemas require use of working memory resources. Working memory and long-term memory each play important roles in the learner’s information processing system.

3 Experienced Learners Novice or Beginner
Instruction-Based Guidance and The Learners’ Schemas Novice or Beginner Learners Experienced Lack sophisticated schemas associated with task at hand Instruction-based guidance act as a means of constructing schemas and if effective, act as a means of enhancing their learning Failure to provide guidance results in learners resorting to problem-solving search strategies that are cognitively inefficient because they impose a heavy working memory load. Possess a large number of domain-specific schemas and bring them to the process of constructing mental representation of a task. Additional instruction-based guidance may not be needed because their schemas provide full guidance Provision of additional guidance can result in conflict between schemas and instruction-based guidance The learner’s level of prior knowledge or expertise should guide teachers and instructional designers on the level of instruction-based guidance they provide.

4 Instructional Techniques/Effects Interact with
the Learner’s Level of Prior Knowledge or Expertise SPLIT ATTENTION EFFECT REDUNDANCY MODALITY WORKED EXAMPLE ISOLATED ELEMENTS IMAGINATION Several instructional techniques/effects have been designed to facilitate schema construction and automation by reducing working memory load. However strong evidence has emerged that the effectiveness these techniques depend very much on levels of learner expertise. “Instructional techniques that are highly effective with inexperienced learners can lose their effectiveness and even have negative consequences when used with experienced learners” (Kalyuga, 2003).

5 Major Implication for Instructional Design
“The need to tailor instructional formats and procedures to the learner’s changing levels of expertise” (Kalyuga,2005).

6 REFERENCES & CREDITS Information Processing Model (online image) Retrieved on April 12,2012 from Kalyuga, S., Ayres, P., Chandler P.,& Sweller, J. (2003). Expertise reversal effect. Educational Psychologist, 38, Kalyuga, S. (2005). Prior knowledge principle. In R. Mayer (Ed), Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp ). New York : Cambridge University Press. Light bulb (online image) Retrieved on April 11 ,2012 from The learner (online image) Retrieved on April 14, 2012 from pushed-or-pulled/


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