Presentation on theme: "PRIOR KNOWLEDGE PRINCIPLE in MULTIMEDIA LEARNING."— Presentation transcript:
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE PRINCIPLE in MULTIMEDIA LEARNING
Working memory (a.k.a. short-term memory) limitations profoundly influence the character of human information processing, and to considerable extent, shape human cognitive structure Long-term Memory contains huge amounts of domain-specific knowledge that can be described as hierarchically organized schemas. The controlled use of schemas require use of working memory resources. The Information Processing Model
Novice or Beginner Learners Experienced Learners Lack sophisticated schemas associated with task at hand Instruction-based guidance act as a means of constructing schemas and if effective, act as a means of enhancing their learning Failure to provide guidance results in learners resorting to problem-solving search strategies that are cognitively inefficient because they impose a heavy working memory load. Possess a large number of domain-specific schemas and bring them to the process of constructing mental representation of a task. Additional instruction-based guidance may not be needed because their schemas provide full guidance Provision of additional guidance can result in conflict between schemas and instruction-based guidance Instruction-Based Guidance and The Learners’ Schemas
SPLIT ATTENTION EFFECT REDUNDANCY EFFECT MODALITY EFFECT WORKED EXAMPLE EFFECT ISOLATED ELEMENTS EFFECT IMAGINATIO N EFFECT Instructional Techniques/Effects Interact with the Learner’s Level of Prior Knowledge or Expertise “Instructional techniques that are highly effective with inexperienced learners can lose their effectiveness and even have negative consequences when used with experienced learners” (Kalyuga, 2003).
Major Implication for Instructional Design “ The need to tailor instructional formats and procedures to the learner’s changing levels of expertise” (Kalyuga,2005).
REFERENCES & CREDITS Information Processing Model (online image) Retrieved on April 12,2012 from Kalyuga, S., Ayres, P., Chandler P.,& Sweller, J. (2003). Expertise reversal effect. Educational Psychologist, 38, Kalyuga, S. (2005). Prior knowledge principle. In R. Mayer (Ed), Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp ). New York : Cambridge University Press. Light bulb (online image) Retrieved on April 11,2012 from The learner (online image) Retrieved on April 14, 2012 from pushed-or-pulled/