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Ch 4. Multimedia Principle

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1 Ch 4. Multimedia Principle
Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press. 2003/12/29 吳秋儀

2 Outline Introduction Research on Multimedia
Does multimedia work? Are pictures different from words? Words and pictures are informationally equivalent / qualitatively different Research on Multimedia Multimedia effect for retention / transfer Related Research on Multimedia Implications for multimedia learning / multimedia design

3 Does Multimedia Work? Do students learn better when a lesson is presented in words and pictures? Lesson: to foster learning in a student Words: printed or spoken text Pictures: any form of static or dynamic graphic Learn better: improvements in retention and understanding of the presented material

4 Are Pictures Different from Words?
Example: How a tire pump works? Information-delivery-No Words & pictures are simply two vehicles for presenting the same information. Cognitive theory-Yes Words & pictures prime two qualitatively different knowledge representation systems in learners.

5 Words & Pictures are Informationally Equivalent: The case for presenting words only
Information-delivery theory Words-only presentation: because verbal messages are efficient and ease to create. Once a learner has received information in one format, it’s a waste of effort to deliver it again in a different format. The teacher’s role is to deliver information and the learner’s role is to store it in memory. Students who receive words should perform as well on retention & transfer tests as who receive words and pictures.

6 Words & Pictures are Qualitatively Different: The case for adding pictures to words
Cognitive theory of multimedia learning The resulting verbal & pictorial representations are not informationally equivalent. The multimedia presentation allows learners to correspond verbal & pictorial representations in working memory at the same time. Increase the chances that learners build mental connections between them. Students given words and pictures will perform better on retention & transfer tests than students given words.

7 Research on Multimedia
2 groups, 9 separate tests Narrated animation (Text with illustrations) Narration only (Text only) Retention test Writing down an explanation of how the presented system works. (5~6 mins/question) Score: the number of main ideas Transfer test Writing answers to problem-solving questions. (2.5 mins/question) Score: the number of creative solutions

8 Multimedia Effect for Retention

9 Multimedia Effect for Transfer

10 Result These results are inconsistent with information-delivery theory, but are consistent with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning.

11 Related Research on Multimedia
Categorize illustrations: Decorative-interest or entertain the reader but do not enhance the message of the passage. Representational-portray a single element. Organizational-depict relations along elements. Explanative-explain how a system works. Textbook authors are not maximizing the potential power of graphics to enhance human learning. 23% 62% 5% 10%

12 Related Research on Multimedia (Cont.)
Graphic advance organizer is material presented before a text passage and intended to foster understanding of the text.  Models for understanding It primes relevant prior knowledge in the learner that he/she can integrate with the incoming text.

13 Implications for Multimedia Learning
Multimedia effect: Presenting an explanation with words & pictures results in better learning. The opportunities for meaningful learning are greater for the multiple-representation group. The deeper kind of learning occurs when learners are able to integrate pictorial & verbal representations.

14 Implications for Multimedia Design
Multimedia principle Students learn better from words & pictures than from words alone. However, all multimedia messages are not equally effective. What kind of pictures should be added? How should they be added? When should they be added?

15 Example

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