Presentation on theme: "Ch 4. Multimedia Principle Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press. 2003/12/29 吳秋儀."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 4. Multimedia Principle Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press. 2003/12/29 吳秋儀
Outline Introduction Does multimedia work? Are pictures different from words? Words and pictures are informationally equivalent / qualitatively different Research on Multimedia Multimedia effect for retention / transfer Related Research on Multimedia Implications for multimedia learning / multimedia design Implications for multimedia learning / multimedia design
Does Multimedia Work? Do students learn better when a lesson is presented in words and pictures? Lesson: to foster learning in a student Words: printed or spoken text Pictures: any form of static or dynamic graphic Learn better: improvements in retention and understanding of the presented material
Are Pictures Different from Words? Example: How a tire pump works? Information-delivery － No Words & pictures are simply two vehicles for presenting the same information. Cognitive theory － Yes Words & pictures prime two qualitatively different knowledge representation systems in learners.
Words & Pictures are Informationally Equivalent: The case for presenting words only Information-delivery theory Words-only presentation: because verbal messages are efficient and ease to create. Once a learner has received information in one format, it’s a waste of effort to deliver it again in a different format. The teacher’s role is to deliver information and the learner’s role is to store it in memory. Students who receive words should perform as well on retention & transfer tests as who receive words and pictures.
Words & Pictures are Qualitatively Different: The case for adding pictures to words Cognitive theory of multimedia learning The resulting verbal & pictorial representations are not informationally equivalent. The multimedia presentation allows learners to correspond verbal & pictorial representations in working memory at the same time. Increase the chances that learners build mental connections between them. Students given words and pictures will perform better on retention & transfer tests than students given words.
Research on Multimedia 2 groups, 9 separate tests Narrated animation (Text with illustrations) Narration only (Text only) Retention test Writing down an explanation of how the presented system works. (5~6 mins/question) Score: the number of main ideas Transfer test Writing answers to problem-solving questions. (2.5 mins/question) Score: the number of creative solutions
Multimedia Effect for Retention
Multimedia Effect for Transfer
Result These results are inconsistent with information-delivery theory, but are consistent with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning.
Related Research on Multimedia Categorize illustrations: Decorative － interest or entertain the reader but do not enhance the message of the passage. Representational － portray a single element. Organizational － depict relations along elements. Explanative － explain how a system works. Textbook authors are not maximizing the potential power of graphics to enhance human learning. 23% 62% 5% 10%
Related Research on Multimedia (Cont.) Graphic advance organizer is material presented before a text passage and intended to foster understanding of the text. Models for understanding It primes relevant prior knowledge in the learner that he/she can integrate with the incoming text.
Implications for Multimedia Learning Multimedia effect: Presenting an explanation with words & pictures results in better learning. The opportunities for meaningful learning are greater for the multiple-representation group. The deeper kind of learning occurs when learners are able to integrate pictorial & verbal representations.
Implications for Multimedia Design Multimedia principle Students learn better from words & pictures than from words alone. However, all multimedia messages are not equally effective. What kind of pictures should be added? How should they be added? When should they be added?