Presentation on theme: "Ch 4. Multimedia Principle"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ch 4. Multimedia Principle Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press.2003/12/29 吳秋儀
2 Outline Introduction Research on Multimedia Does multimedia work?Are pictures different from words?Words and pictures are informationally equivalent / qualitatively differentResearch on MultimediaMultimedia effect for retention / transferRelated Research on MultimediaImplications for multimedia learning / multimedia design
3 Does Multimedia Work?Do students learn better when a lesson is presented in words and pictures?Lesson: to foster learning in a studentWords: printed or spoken textPictures: any form of static or dynamic graphicLearn better: improvements in retention and understanding of the presented material
4 Are Pictures Different from Words? Example: How a tire pump works?Information-delivery－NoWords & pictures are simply two vehicles for presenting the same information.Cognitive theory－YesWords & pictures prime two qualitatively different knowledge representation systems in learners.
5 Words & Pictures are Informationally Equivalent: The case for presenting words only Information-delivery theoryWords-only presentation: because verbal messages are efficient and ease to create.Once a learner has received information in one format, it’s a waste of effort to deliver it again in a different format.The teacher’s role is to deliver information and the learner’s role is to store it in memory.Students who receive words should perform as well on retention & transfer tests as who receive words and pictures.
6 Words & Pictures are Qualitatively Different: The case for adding pictures to words Cognitive theory of multimedia learningThe resulting verbal & pictorial representations are not informationally equivalent.The multimedia presentation allows learners to correspond verbal & pictorial representations in working memory at the same time.Increase the chances that learners build mental connections between them.Students given words and pictures will perform better on retention & transfer tests than students given words.
7 Research on Multimedia 2 groups, 9 separate testsNarrated animation (Text with illustrations)Narration only (Text only)Retention testWriting down an explanation of how the presented system works. (5~6 mins/question)Score: the number of main ideasTransfer testWriting answers to problem-solving questions. (2.5 mins/question)Score: the number of creative solutions
10 ResultThese results are inconsistent with information-delivery theory, but are consistent with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning.
11 Related Research on Multimedia Categorize illustrations:Decorative－interest or entertain the reader but do not enhance the message of the passage.Representational－portray a single element.Organizational－depict relations along elements.Explanative－explain how a system works.Textbook authors are not maximizing the potential power of graphics to enhance human learning.23%62%5%10%
12 Related Research on Multimedia (Cont.) Graphic advance organizer is material presented before a text passage and intended to foster understanding of the text. Models for understandingIt primes relevant prior knowledge in the learner that he/she can integrate with the incoming text.
13 Implications for Multimedia Learning Multimedia effect:Presenting an explanation with words & pictures results in better learning.The opportunities for meaningful learning are greater for the multiple-representation group.The deeper kind of learning occurs when learners are able to integrate pictorial & verbal representations.
14 Implications for Multimedia Design Multimedia principleStudents learn better from words & pictures than from words alone.However, all multimedia messages are not equally effective.What kind of pictures should be added?How should they be added?When should they be added?