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Ch 4. Multimedia Principle Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press. 2003/12/29 吳秋儀.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 4. Multimedia Principle Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press. 2003/12/29 吳秋儀."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 4. Multimedia Principle Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press. 2003/12/29 吳秋儀

2 Outline Introduction  Does multimedia work?  Are pictures different from words?  Words and pictures are informationally equivalent / qualitatively different Research on Multimedia  Multimedia effect for retention / transfer  Related Research on Multimedia Implications for multimedia learning / multimedia design Implications for multimedia learning / multimedia design

3 Does Multimedia Work? Do students learn better when a lesson is presented in words and pictures?  Lesson: to foster learning in a student  Words: printed or spoken text  Pictures: any form of static or dynamic graphic  Learn better: improvements in retention and understanding of the presented material

4 Are Pictures Different from Words? Example: How a tire pump works? Information-delivery - No  Words & pictures are simply two vehicles for presenting the same information. Cognitive theory - Yes  Words & pictures prime two qualitatively different knowledge representation systems in learners.

5 Words & Pictures are Informationally Equivalent: The case for presenting words only Information-delivery theory  Words-only presentation: because verbal messages are efficient and ease to create.  Once a learner has received information in one format, it’s a waste of effort to deliver it again in a different format.  The teacher’s role is to deliver information and the learner’s role is to store it in memory.  Students who receive words should perform as well on retention & transfer tests as who receive words and pictures.

6 Words & Pictures are Qualitatively Different: The case for adding pictures to words Cognitive theory of multimedia learning  The resulting verbal & pictorial representations are not informationally equivalent.  The multimedia presentation allows learners to correspond verbal & pictorial representations in working memory at the same time.  Increase the chances that learners build mental connections between them.  Students given words and pictures will perform better on retention & transfer tests than students given words.

7 Research on Multimedia 2 groups, 9 separate tests  Narrated animation (Text with illustrations)  Narration only (Text only) Retention test  Writing down an explanation of how the presented system works. (5~6 mins/question)  Score: the number of main ideas Transfer test  Writing answers to problem-solving questions. (2.5 mins/question)  Score: the number of creative solutions

8 Multimedia Effect for Retention

9 Multimedia Effect for Transfer

10 Result These results are inconsistent with information-delivery theory, but are consistent with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning.

11 Related Research on Multimedia Categorize illustrations:  Decorative - interest or entertain the reader but do not enhance the message of the passage.  Representational - portray a single element.  Organizational - depict relations along elements.  Explanative - explain how a system works. Textbook authors are not maximizing the potential power of graphics to enhance human learning. 23% 62% 5% 10%

12 Related Research on Multimedia (Cont.) Graphic advance organizer is material presented before a text passage and intended to foster understanding of the text.  Models for understanding It primes relevant prior knowledge in the learner that he/she can integrate with the incoming text.

13 Implications for Multimedia Learning Multimedia effect:  Presenting an explanation with words & pictures results in better learning. The opportunities for meaningful learning are greater for the multiple-representation group. The deeper kind of learning occurs when learners are able to integrate pictorial & verbal representations.

14 Implications for Multimedia Design Multimedia principle  Students learn better from words & pictures than from words alone. However, all multimedia messages are not equally effective.  What kind of pictures should be added?  How should they be added?  When should they be added?

15 Example

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