Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Learning Through Various Cognitive Models

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Learning Through Various Cognitive Models"— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Through Various Cognitive Models
Lesson 11 EDTC 3000, PPR

2 Cognitive Views of Learning
Cognitive views of learning focus on the mental processes which might be occurring in the learner. Learning is defined as a change within a person’s internal mental structures or mental processes. EDTC 3000, PPR

3 Learning Assumptions and Cognitive Views
Some learning processes are unique to human beings. Cognitive processes are the focus of learning in this presentation. Inferences about unobservable mental processes can often be drawn from objective, systematic observations of people’s behavior. EDTC 3000, PPR

4 Learning in the Cognitive Model Includes:
Individuals are actively involved in the learning process. The formation of mental associations are not necessarily reflected in overt behavior changes. Knowledge is organized. Learning is a process of relating new information to previously learned information. EDTC 3000, PPR

5 Three Cognitive Models for Discussion
Information Processing. Constructivism. Meta-cognition strategies. EDTC 3000, PPR

6 Information Processing Model
This model provides a view of how new information is stored in a person’s long-term memory. In this model there are three types of memory: sensory memory, working memory (also called short-term memory), and long-term memory. EDTC 3000, PPR

7 Information Processing Model
EDTC 3000, PPR

8 Sensory Memory What does it do?
Stores information from surroundings for very short periods of time (1/2 second for sight, 3 seconds for hearing). Barriers to learning? Lack of attention. What strategies work? People pay attention when the stimulus is interesting and related to something they already know. EDTC 3000, PPR

9 Short-term Memory What does it do?
It holds 7 (±2) pieces of information that we have attended to for seconds. Barriers to learning? If a child can only hold 3 pieces of information, make sure to give the most essential items. EDTC 3000, PPR

10 Activity 1 You will view a list of letters for 15 seconds.
When I say “GO,” recall and write down as many letters as you can. EDTC 3000, PPR

11 You have 15 seconds…. FB IMT VU SAHB OC IA EDTC 3000, PPR

12 Short-term Memory What strategies work?
Rehearsal (repeating) information or organizing information? Classifying parts/whole; Sequential; Relevance/imaginary; Transition/model Chunking EDTC 3000, PPR

13 Activity 1 again You will view the list of letters for 15 seconds once again. When I say “GO,” recall and write down as many letters as you can. EDTC 3000, PPR

14 You have 15 seconds… FBI MTV USA HBO CIA EDTC 3000, PPR

15 Results of Activity 1 Everyone performed much better.
Notice how “chunking,” a reorganization technique, greatly simplified the task. What implications does this activity have for the classroom teacher? EDTC 3000, PPR

16 Long-term Memory What does it do?
Stores information that will be needed often. Barriers to learning? Although we might have stored the information, we sometimes can’t recall where it is. Stored information is never forgotten, just lost. EDTC 3000, PPR

17 Long-term Storage What strategies work?
Periodic review (trivia flashcards) or elaboration (as in adding memory clues to the information) Elaboration can be creating mental pictures, pegwords (number, rhyming schemes), rhymes (songs, jingles), mnemonic devices (Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally) Using the information in various ways with different organization tools is helpful. Applying information. EDTC 3000, PPR

18 Activity 2 The works of William Shakespeare (Hamlet, MacBeth, and others) are often used to describe modern day political leaders. Write up a sample assignment that asks students to make political and biographical parallels between a world leader and one of Shakespeare’s characters. EDTC 3000, PPR

19 Constructivism Model EDTC 3000, PPR

20 What is Constructivism?
A philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world around us. EDTC 3000, PPR

21 What is Student Constructivism?
In the constructivist classroom, students generate their knowledge, or mental models, rules, or representations of information based on their classroom experiences. EDTC 3000, PPR

22 Guiding Principles of Constructivism
Learning is a search for meaning. Meaning requires understanding of wholes as well as parts, and parts must be understood in context to wholes. (Not isolated facts) Teacher must understand mental models that students use to perceive the world. Learning is to have the student construct his/her own meaning, not memorize “right” answers. EDTC 3000, PPR

23 What a Constructivist Classroom Looks Like
Student autonomy and initiative are accepted and encouraged. The teacher asks open-ended questions and allows wait time for responses. Higher-level thinking is encouraged. Students are engaged in dialogue with the teacher. Usually reserved for Tier 1 (honor) students. EDTC 3000, PPR

24 What a Constructivist Classroom Looks Like
Students are engaged in experiences that challenge hypotheses and encourage discussion. The class uses raw data, primary sources, manipulatives, physical and interactive materials. EDTC 3000, PPR

25 Activity 3 Design an assignment that requires a student or group of students to prove (or disprove) the need for a traffic light in front of their school. The assignment should outline research tools to use, how much and what kind of data to gather. EDTC 3000, PPR

26 Meta-Cognition Basics
EDTC 3000, PPR

27 What is meta-cognition?
Thinking about thinking Knowing “what we know” and “what we don’t know.” Knowing how we learn best. Developing goals for a learning task Monitoring our comprehension or performance Evaluating our learning progress. EDTC 3000, PPR

28 Applying Meta-cognition to a Learning Task
Phase 1: Develop a plan of action. Phase 2: Maintain/monitor the plan Phase 3: Evaluate the plan’s success. Each phase connected to a time before, during, and after the learning task. EDTC 3000, PPR

29 Developing the “Before” Part of the Plan
What prior knowledge will help me with this particular task? In what direction do I want my thinking to take me? What should I do first? Why am I performing this task? How much time do I have to complete this task? EDTC 3000, PPR

30 Developing the “Maintain & Monitor” Part of the Plan
How am I doing? Am I on the right track? How should I proceed? What information is important to remember? Should I move in a different direction? Should I adjust the pace if it gets more difficult? What do I do if I do not understand? EDTC 3000, PPR

31 Developing the “Evaluate” Part of the Plan
How well did I do? Did my course of thinking produce more or less than I expected? How might I apply this line of thinking to other problems? Do I need to go back through the task to fill any “blanks” in my understanding? EDTC 3000, PPR

32 Activity 4 To be effective, a teacher must constantly monitor student
academic progress and design lessons and tests that will enhance the learning experience. Design a general and realistic plan or strategy that will help you, the new teacher, keep track of student progress, significantly minimize student failure, and maximize student success. EDTC 3000, PPR

Download ppt "Learning Through Various Cognitive Models"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google