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EDTC 3000, PPR Learning Through Various Cognitive Models Lesson 11.

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1 EDTC 3000, PPR Learning Through Various Cognitive Models Lesson 11

2 EDTC 3000, PPR Cognitive Views of Learning Cognitive views of learning focus on the mental processes which might be occurring in the learner. Learning is defined as a change within a person’s internal mental structures or mental processes.

3 EDTC 3000, PPR Learning Assumptions and Cognitive Views Some learning processes are unique to human beings. Cognitive processes are the focus of learning in this presentation. Inferences about unobservable mental processes can often be drawn from objective, systematic observations of people’s behavior.

4 EDTC 3000, PPR Learning in the Cognitive Model Includes: Individuals are actively involved in the learning process. The formation of mental associations are not necessarily reflected in overt behavior changes. Knowledge is organized. Learning is a process of relating new information to previously learned information.

5 EDTC 3000, PPR Three Cognitive Models for Discussion Information Processing. Constructivism. Meta-cognition strategies.

6 EDTC 3000, PPR Information Processing Model This model provides a view of how new information is stored in a person’s long- term memory. In this model there are three types of memory: sensory memory, working memory (also called short-term memory), and long-term memory.

7 EDTC 3000, PPR Information Processing Model

8 EDTC 3000, PPR Sensory Memory What does it do?Stores information from surroundings for very short periods of time (1/2 second for sight, 3 seconds for hearing). Barriers to learning?Lack of attention. What strategies work? People pay attention when the stimulus is interesting and related to something they already know.

9 EDTC 3000, PPR Short-term Memory What does it do?It holds 7 (±2) pieces of information that we have attended to for seconds. Barriers to learning?If a child can only hold 3 pieces of information, make sure to give the most essential items.

10 EDTC 3000, PPR Activity 1 You will view a list of letters for 15 seconds. When I say “GO,” recall and write down as many letters as you can.

11 EDTC 3000, PPR You have 15 seconds…. FB IMT VU SAHB OC IA

12 EDTC 3000, PPR Short-term Memory What strategies work?Rehearsal (repeating) information or organizing information? 1.Classifying parts/whole; 2.Sequential; 3.Relevance/imaginary; 4.Transition/model 5.Chunking

13 EDTC 3000, PPR Activity 1 again You will view the list of letters for 15 seconds once again. When I say “GO,” recall and write down as many letters as you can.

14 EDTC 3000, PPR You have 15 seconds… FBI MTV USA HBO CIA

15 EDTC 3000, PPR Results of Activity 1 Everyone performed much better. Notice how “chunking,” a reorganization technique, greatly simplified the task. What implications does this activity have for the classroom teacher?

16 EDTC 3000, PPR Long-term Memory What does it do?Stores information that will be needed often. Barriers to learning? Although we might have stored the information, we sometimes can’t recall where it is. Stored information is never forgotten, just lost.

17 EDTC 3000, PPR Long-term Storage What strategies work? Periodic review (trivia flashcards) or elaboration (as in adding memory clues to the information) Elaboration can be creating mental pictures, pegwords (number, rhyming schemes), rhymes (songs, jingles), mnemonic devices (Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally) Using the information in various ways with different organization tools is helpful. Applying information.

18 EDTC 3000, PPR Activity 2 The works of William Shakespeare (Hamlet, MacBeth, and others) are often used to describe modern day political leaders. Write up a sample assignment that asks students to make political and biographical parallels between a world leader and one of Shakespeare’s characters.

19 EDTC 3000, PPR Constructivism Model

20 EDTC 3000, PPR What is Constructivism? A philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world around us.

21 EDTC 3000, PPR What is Student Constructivism? In the constructivist classroom, students generate their knowledge, or mental models, rules, or representations of information based on their classroom experiences.

22 EDTC 3000, PPR Guiding Principles of Constructivism Learning is a search for meaning. Meaning requires understanding of wholes as well as parts, and parts must be understood in context to wholes. (Not isolated facts) Teacher must understand mental models that students use to perceive the world. Learning is to have the student construct his/her own meaning, not memorize “right” answers.

23 EDTC 3000, PPR What a Constructivist Classroom Looks Like Student autonomy and initiative are accepted and encouraged. The teacher asks open-ended questions and allows wait time for responses. Higher-level thinking is encouraged. Students are engaged in dialogue with the teacher. Usually reserved for Tier 1 (honor) students.

24 EDTC 3000, PPR What a Constructivist Classroom Looks Like Students are engaged in experiences that challenge hypotheses and encourage discussion. The class uses raw data, primary sources, manipulatives, physical and interactive materials.

25 EDTC 3000, PPR Activity 3 Design an assignment that requires a student or group of students to prove (or disprove) the need for a traffic light in front of their school. The assignment should outline research tools to use, how much and what kind of data to gather.

26 EDTC 3000, PPR Meta-Cognition Basics

27 EDTC 3000, PPR What is meta-cognition? Thinking about thinking Knowing “what we know” and “what we don’t know.” Knowing how we learn best. Developing goals for a learning task Monitoring our comprehension or performance Evaluating our learning progress.

28 EDTC 3000, PPR Applying Meta-cognition to a Learning Task Phase 1: Develop a plan of action. Phase 2: Maintain/monitor the plan Phase 3: Evaluate the plan’s success. Each phase connected to a time before, during, and after the learning task.

29 EDTC 3000, PPR Developing the “Before” Part of the Plan What prior knowledge will help me with this particular task? In what direction do I want my thinking to take me? What should I do first? Why am I performing this task? How much time do I have to complete this task?

30 EDTC 3000, PPR Developing the “Maintain & Monitor” Part of the Plan How am I doing? Am I on the right track? How should I proceed? What information is important to remember? Should I move in a different direction? Should I adjust the pace if it gets more difficult? What do I do if I do not understand?

31 EDTC 3000, PPR Developing the “Evaluate” Part of the Plan How well did I do? Did my course of thinking produce more or less than I expected? How might I apply this line of thinking to other problems? Do I need to go back through the task to fill any “blanks” in my understanding?

32 EDTC 3000, PPR Activity 4 To be effective, a teacher must constantly monitor student academic progress and design lessons and tests that will enhance the learning experience. Design a general and realistic plan or strategy that will help you, the new teacher, keep track of student progress, significantly minimize student failure, and maximize student success.


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