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Ghana Case Study Dr. Nana Akua Anyidoho & Prof. Gordon Crawford RIPOCA Research Finding Workshop, 3 Dec 2010 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Ghana Case Study Dr. Nana Akua Anyidoho & Prof. Gordon Crawford RIPOCA Research Finding Workshop, 3 Dec 2010 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ghana Case Study Dr. Nana Akua Anyidoho & Prof. Gordon Crawford RIPOCA Research Finding Workshop, 3 Dec

2 Outline Introduction to country context Case study organisations Methods Nature of power constraints Strategies to challenge power Building countervailing power Conclusion: power structures changed? : rights secured? 2

3 Ghana context Important dates up to 1957 independence struggle from British colonial rule period of intermittent military rule 1993 – 2011 consolidation of democratic governance IN THIS NEW DISPENSATION The Constitution ▫Ghana’s history ▫global discourses and policy making Other Structures ▫Government– including legislature and judiciary ▫Independent human rights commission ▫Civil society organising ▫Media 3

4 Ghana context The negatives…. History Social norms and values Poverty 4

5 Case Study Organisations Coalition Against Domestic Violence (DVC) Wassa West Communities Affected by Mining (WACAM) Belim Wusa Development Agency (BEWDA) 5

6 6

7 Methods Data collection between June 2009 and May 2010 in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, observation and participation ( in the organizations’ meetings ), and document analysis qualitative analysis 7

8 Sources of ‘negative power’ State (at national and local levels) International business + global economic order The general public 8

9 Visible Power [observable power by governments, for example] Government (national level): DVC --- Cabinet decision to refer Domestic Violence bill back for consultation which caused its delay; Minister publically speaking against the bill; some parliamentarians vocally opposing it in debates WACAM -- granting of concessions; terms and laws; use of security services to protect mining companies ‘Government has removed its sovereign cap and now wearing its corporate cap” 9

10 Visible Power [observable power by governments, big business, donors] Government (at district level) and other local structures: District Assembly, especially DCEs, lobbied by mining companies Chiefs using their influence to support mining companies or to protect social status quo International business “WACAM is up against powerful, politically-motivated, rich multinational companies who are able to pull political strength, financial strengthen to frustrate WACAM’s work” International donors 10

11 Hidden Power [attempt to control public opinion and decisions] Male-dominated structures in parliament, cabinet and other locations in government Mining companies lobbying and public relations government agencies, parliament, Chamber of Mines, EPA, media, chiefs, district assemblies – “influenced by the mining companies to put dust in the eyes of the people” ‘ Divide and rule’ tactic -- companies target community leaders for employment or outsourcing work. 11

12 Socialisation of both men and women 1.public opinion 2.decision-making in the ministries, cabinet and parliament “I think that it’s because [the MOWAC minister] was of the old school, you know...it is the way we have been socialized, how dare you complain about your husband beating you. How dare you as a child go and tell another person your parents have.” ‘Why should Parliament pass a bill which will allow our wives to trample upon us and deny us conjugal rights?” 3.Willingness to challenge wealth, power and social hierarchies Invisible/Internalised power usually subconscious motivations over people’s opinions and beliefs 12

13 Spaces of engagement Closed Spaces (parliament, district assembly meetings, shareholder meetings) ▫Generally unsuccessful ▫Where successful, indirect approach Invited Spaces (partnership with government, international for a) ▫Based on political and social clout of organisation ▫But how effective? ▫DANGER of cooptation! Claimed/Created Spaces (media, alliance building) ▫Relatively most successful ▫DANGER of disengagement with state and other powers 13

14 Building of power WACAM contribution to the “the monumental awareness on mining now in Ghana” DVC passage of bill BEDWA widening influence 14

15 Most effective strategies Public education (to change public opinion and for empowerment) Advocacy (for policy and legislation change) Lobbying Demonstrations and social mobilization Media campaigns and education/lobbying of journalists Alliance-building (internal and international organisations) Litigation 15

16 Building of power to counteract ‘POWER OVER’ Power with Power within Power to 16

17 Transformation? Yes? -Increased ‘power within’, ‘power with’ and ‘power to’ -Changes in legislation -(Limited) change in attitudes -More cautious use of ‘coercive power’ -Important lessons and skills sets for further struggle 17

18 Transformation? No? -Sources of obstacles still remain, relatively unchanged -More legislation needed -Implementation and follow- through needed -Sustained engagement needed 18


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