4 The Latin Influence 11Early influences ( AD): new concepts need to be expressed in new wordsdomestic life: cap, sock, silk, chest, mat, lentil, pear, radish, oyster, lobster, mussel, fennel, lily, myrrhschooling: school, master, grammar, verse, gloss, notary
5 The Latin Influence 12Later influences ( AD): of learned nature, due to Benedictine ReformFlowering of monastic culture (8th & 9th centuries) cut short in Northumbria and Mercia due to Viking invasion.In the aftermath, monastic discipline and culture suffered from neglect =>
6 The Latin Influence 13 Benedictine Reform in the 10th century. Strict observance of the Benedictine Rule ‘ora et labora’!chastity, obedience, povertyeffects: improvement of education and monastic discipline
7 The Latin Influence 14 New vocabulary: learning and science: history, paper, pumice, ginger, camel, tiger, cancer, paralysis, plasterreligion: apostle, cell, cloister, creed, demon, dirge, font, idol, prophet, synagogue etc.missing: words of everyday life
8 The Latin Influence 15 strategies to express new concepts: loans loan-translationsdisciple vs. leorning-cnihtpatriarch vs. heahfaedermartyr vs. throwere [‘sufferer‘]saint vs. halgabaptism vs. fulluht
9 The Latin Influence 16 fulluht-baeth? fulluht-nama? adaptation of existing terms: Hel > hell
10 Germanic mythological worldview Asgard(Home of the gods)Midgard(Home of men)Hel(Home of the dead, underworld)
15 The Ruthwell Cross (south) Mary Magdalene anointing Jesus's feet: "+ A[ttulit alaba]STRUM UNGUENTI & STANS RETRO SECUS PEDES EIUS LACRIMIS COEPIT RIGARE PEDES EIUS & CAPILLIS CAPITIS SUI TERGEBAT," "+ She brought an alabaster box of ointment and standing behind beside His feet she began to wash His feet with her tears, and she wiped [them] with the hairs of her head"
17 The Ruthwell Cross (south) Jesus healing the blind man: "+ ET PRAETERIENS VIDI[t hominem caecum] A NATIBITATE ET S[anavit eum ab infirmitate], "+ And passing by He saw a man blind from birth, and He healed him from [his] infirmity"
19 The Ruthwell Cross (north) Christ upon the Beasts: "IHSX.S [or IHS XPS (Howlett 75)] IUDEX AEQUITATIS BESTIAE ET DRACONES COGNOUERUNT IN DESERTO SALVATOREM MUNDI,” "Jesus Christ the Judge of Justice. Beasts and dragons acknowledged in the desert the Saviour of the world."
21 The Ruthwell Cross (north) Paul and Anthony: "+SCS PAULUS ET A[ntonius duo eremitae (from Howlett 75)] FREGERUNT PANEM IN DESERTO," "Saints Paul and Anthony, two hermits, broke bread in the desert."
24 The Ruthwell Cross (east) + Ondgeredæ Hinæ God Almehttig.πa He walde on galgu gistigamodig fore allæ menbuga ic ni dorstæac scealde fæstæ standa.He stripped himself there, God almighty, when he willed to climb the gallows,bloody in front of all the people.I did not dare to give waybut had to stand fast.
25 Ahof ic riicnæ Kyninc,Heafunæs Hlaford, hælda ic ni dorsæ.Bismæradu unket men ba ætgadre; ic wæs miπ blodi bistemid,bigoten of πæs Guman sida siππan He His gastæ sendæ.I raised up the powerful King,the Lord of Heaven. I did not dare to topple.They humiliated us both together.I was soaked with blood, poured forth,gotten from the side of the Man when He gave up his ghost.
30 "+ Krist wæs on rodi.Hweπræ πer fusæ fearran kwomuæππilæ til anum: ic πæt al biheald.Saræ ic wæs miπ sorgum gidrœfid; hnag ic πam secgum til handa."Christ was on the Cross. But diligent and noble men came there from afar to the lonely one. All this I witnessed. I was sorely oppressed by anxieties, nonetheless I bowed to the hands of the men ...
31 Miπ strelum giwundadalegdun hiæ Hinæ limwœrignæ; gistoddun him æt His licæs heafdum;bihealdun hiæ πer Heafunæs Dryctin; ond He Hinæ πer hwilæ restæ..... wounded by sharp points. They laid down the man weary of limb. They stood at his body’s head. Then they gazed upon the Lord of heaven; and He rested Himself for a while ...
32 The Dream of the RoodThe entire poem is to be found in the Vercelli Book (West Saxon dialect)Example of ‘heroic Germanic Christianity’Then I saw the Lord of mankind hasten with much fortitude, for he meant to climb upon me. I did not dare then, against the word of the Lord, to give way there or to break when I saw the earth’s surfaces quake.
33 The Dream of the RoodThe young man, who was the almighty God, stripped himself, strong and unflinching. He climbed upon the despised gallows, courageous under the scrutiny of many, since he willed to redeem mankind. I quaked then, when the man embraced me.
34 The Latin Influence 16 Effects of the Latin influence: some 450 Latin words appear in English writings before the end of the OE period.integration of most elements into the language => became active elements themselvesmartyr => gemartyrian = ‘to martyr’; martyrhad or martyrdom = ‘martyrdom’