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The Eisenhower Era 1952-1960 Chapter 37. The Advent of Eisenhower Cold War divided globe between East (Communist/Soviet) and West (Capitalist/US) Domestically.

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Presentation on theme: "The Eisenhower Era 1952-1960 Chapter 37. The Advent of Eisenhower Cold War divided globe between East (Communist/Soviet) and West (Capitalist/US) Domestically."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Eisenhower Era 1952-1960 Chapter 37

2 The Advent of Eisenhower Cold War divided globe between East (Communist/Soviet) and West (Capitalist/US) Domestically US divided over communist subversion and civil rights 1952 Election – Democrats Democrats nominated Adlai E. Stevenson (governor of Illinois Party was hurt by deadlock in Korea, Truman’s clash with MacArthur, war-bred inflation and whiffs of scandal – Republicans Republicans nominated General Dwight D. Eisenhower with Richard Nixon Eisenhower (Ike) was most popular American, though unknown on politics Eisenhower left the rough campaigning to Nixon – Nixon accused of having slush fund, made a “Checkers speech” that saved him Eisenhower cracked the solid South wide open and ensured GOP control of the new Congress – Ike wins easily! Adlai Stevenson Dwight Eisenhower

3 The Advent of Eisenhower Television – Eisenhower took advantage of television – Limited political parties monopoly on information – Political messages packaged like entertainment and advertising Eisenhower’s leadership style – Projected sincerity, fairness, and optimism; – Enjoyed the affection and respect of the citizenry – Presided over tremendous prosperity and growth but failed to use popularity to make gains in civil rights End of Korean War – Ike visited Korea in December 1952 – Truce was only agreed after Ike threatened to use atomic weapons Established status quo ante – 54,000 Americans killed; over million Chinese and Koreans deaths

4 Rise and Fall of Joseph McCarthy Joe McCarthy – Claimed hundreds of communists in the State Department Never proved anything! – Republican colleagues supported attacks on the Democratic administration – McCarthy flourished in the Cold War atmosphere of suspicion and fear; Most ruthless “red-hunter” and damaged the American traditions of fair play and free speech – The careers of countless officials, writers, and actors were ruined by accusations – Majority of Americans approved of McCarthy McCarthy Army Hearings – McCarthy went after communists in the military – Military fought back in televised hearings – Did not get political or popular support – Ended McCarthy’s anti-Communist raids McCarthyism means accusing someone of disloyalty without evidence

5 Eisenhower Foreign Policy Secretary of state John Foster Dulles wanted to “roll back” communism, not contain it; – But Ike said he would balance budget by cutting military spending Strategic Air Command (SAC) fleet of superbombers equipped with nukes would allow “massive retaliation” instead of needing large army and navy – Believed to be a cheaper, effective deterrent to China and Soviet Union; “brinkmanship” – Mutual Assured Destruction (M.A.D.D.) – neither side would engage in nuclear war because nuclear war brought total annihilation

6 Vietnam Begins Europe thanks to the Marshall Plan and NATO seemed reasonably secure by the early 1950s Many of the Asian leaders to become increasingly communist while US became increasingly anticommunist French Indo China – France wanted to maintain its colonial presence in southeast Asia – Nationalist Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh wanted independence – French lost to Vietnamese at Dienbienphu in March 1954 Geneva Conference divided Vietnam at the seventeenth parallel – Victorious Ho Chi Minh in the North; pro-Western government under Ngo Dinh Diem in the South – Elections were scheduled to unite nation in 1956 Eisenhower promised economic and military aid to the autocratic Diem regime

7 Cold War Crises in Europe and Middle East West Germany – US backed French in Indochina so France would approve rearming West Germany – US wanted strong West Germany to balance Soviet power in Europe – Germans were welcomed into the NATO fold in 1955 Warsaw Pact – Soviet led military alliance with Eastern Europe; response to N.A.T.O. alliance Easing of Tensions – Eisenhower negotiated arms-control agreements with Moscow; – Soviets left Austria – Khrushchev denounced the bloody excesses of Joseph Stalin—hope for the future Hungarian Revolt – Soviets brutally repress Hungarian revolution – Renewed tensions with US

8 Menaces in the Middle East CIA engineered a coup in 1953 that installed Mohammed Reza Pahlevi as the shah of Iran to guarantee western access to Iranian oil Suez Crisis 1956 – Arab nationalist President Nasser of Egypt asked for west to finance a dam but western support ended when Nasser flirted with communists – Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal (taken from British and French) – Israel, France and Britain launch attack on Egypt without America’s approval – US refused to support invasion, so it ended – Demonstrated west needed US support for military engagements Eisenhower Doctrine 1957 – pledged US military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by communist aggression— – real threat to US was nationalism (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, OPEC ) and stranglehold on Western economies U2 spy photo of Suez Crisis

9 Sputnik and Space Race Sputnik I (Oct 1957) – First man made satellite to orbit globe Sputnik II (Nov 1957) – Satellite launched carrying a dog Space Race – Shattered American self-confidence – Created need to improve science education and production – Created fear of Soviet missile superiority National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) created and billions spent on missile development – US gets first satellite in orbit Feb 1958 National Defense and Education Act (NDEA) authorized $887 million in loans to needy college students and in grants for the improvement of teaching the sciences and languages

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