2Formula for Understanding the Process of Crisis Formation Precipitating Event OccursPerception of Event Leads to Subjective DistressSubjective Distress Leads to Impairment in FunctioningCoping Skills Fail to Improve Functioning
3Formula to Increase Functioning Alter / Change Perception of the Precipitating Event and Offer Coping StrategiesSubjective Distress will be loweredFunctioning Level returns to Previous level or higher.
4Crisis as Danger and Opportunity With help / Counseling / Intervention, the individual survives the crisis with increased coping skills, emotional growth, and resources which prepare him for future stressors.Danger:Without Help, the individual may return to a lowered level of functioning by use of the ego defense mechanisms or remain nonfunctional via suicide, homicide, or psychosis.
5The Crisis Prone Person Experiences a stressor perceived as threatening which leads to subjective distress and impairment in functioning. Coping methods fail.State of disequilibrium ensues for 4-6 weeks.No intervention / help is sought.Individual uses ego strength to deny, repress, dissociate from the meaning of the precipitating event and subjective distress and functions at a lowered level.Individual unprepared emotionally to cope with future stressors and easily enters into crisis states when faced with potential precipitating events.
6OTHER DETERMINING FACTORS Material Resources:money,shelter,transportation,food,clothing
7OTHER DETERMINING FACTORS Personal Resources:ego strength,personality traits,physical well-being,intelligence andeducation
8OTHER DETERMINING FACTORS Social Resources:friends,family,school mates,co-workers,church,clubs
9TYPES OF CRISES Developmental: normal, expected, transitional phases as people move from one stage of life to another. People often unable to cope with evolving needs of family membersSituational:uncommon, extraordinary events. No way of forecasting or controlling them, emergency quality
10Curvilinear Model of Anxiety Too much anxiety is overwhelming and paralyzingToo little anxiety leaves very little motivation to change or accept interventions.Moderate anxiety is optimal in motivating people to change and allowing them to utilize personal resources.Sometimes an individual needs medication to reduce anxiety to the point where a person can respond to intervention.Other times anxiety is encouraged to increase motivation.
11Caplan’s 7 Characteristics of Effective Coping Behavior Actively exploring reality issues and searching for information.Freely expressing both positive and negative feeling and tolerating frustration.Actively invoking help from others.Breaking problems down into manageable bits and working through them one at a time.
12Caplan’s 7 Characteristics of Effective Coping Behavior Being aware of fatigue and pacing coping efforts while maintaining control in as many areas of functioning as possible.Mastering feelings where possible, being flexible and willing to change.Trusting in oneself and others and having a basic optimism about the outcome.