Presentation on theme: "1 Approaches to Public Administration From the Traditional Model to New Public Management (NPM), to (NPS)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Approaches to Public Administration From the Traditional Model to New Public Management (NPM), to (NPS)
Public Administration = Bureaucratic Organization Max Weber –Bureaucratic characteristics (Principles): Clear division of labor Clear hierarchy of authority Formal rules and procedures Impersonality Careers based on merit
3 Problems with the Traditional Model Bureaucracy- Max Weber Problems with the Traditional Model Lack of neutrality and professionalism (Politics!) Rigidity (red tape) stifles creativity Informal networks exist beside the formal ones Risk aversion rather than risk taking Fixed procedures no longer suitable for the changing environment Input dominating structure ignored outputs and results Inefficiency and Ineffectiveness (corruption!)
New Public Administration The New Public Administration concept came first time in 1968 in first Minnowbrook Conference held under the patronage of Dwight Waldo.Dwight Waldo The 1960s in the USA was a time of social and political turbulence due to Vietnam war, Civil Rights movements, campus unrest, etc and
In word of Dwight Waldo neither the study nor the practice of public administration was responding suitably to escalating turmoil and complications. The Minnowbrook conference challenged the traditional public administration in a manner that it was anti-positivist, and Unrealistic (anti-technical and anti-hierarchical.public administrationanti-positivist
3 N.P.A. has 3 important attacks to PA: Relevance: It says that traditional Public Administration has little to say about contemporary problems Values: It says value-neutrality in Public Administration is an impossibility. It is less neutral and more normative. Social Equity: Public Administration fails to work for changes which try to redress the deprivation of minorities;therefore, will likely be eventually used to repress those minorities.
Change: It attacks on the status quo and deep rooted power in permanent institutions. It requires positive, proactive and responsive administrators rather than authoritarian and ivory tower bureaucrats. Equity: It focus more on democratic norms than operating in down top structure. Involvement: Involving org’s members and its clients in decision making process. N.P.A - Significance
New Public Management New Public Management is a management philosophy used by governments since the 1980s to modernise the public sector.managementgovernmentspublic sector The main hypothesis in the NPM-reform wave is that more market orientation in the public sector will lead to greater cost-efficiency for governments, without having negative side effects on other objectives and considerations.
NPM, compared to other public management theories, is more oriented towards outcomes and efficiency through better management of public budget.public management It is considered to be achieved by applying competition, as it is known in the private sector, to organizations in the public sector, emphasizing economic and leadership principles.private sectorpublic sector New public management addresses beneficiaries of public services much like customers New public management addresses beneficiaries of public services much like customers.
10 New Public Management (Mid 1980s and 1990s) Major shift from traditional model with new main focus on achievement of results rather than on process Move away from classic bureaucracy to more flexible forms of organization Clear identification of objectives plus performance indicators that enable measurement Senior staff politically committed to government Government involvement need not always mean government provision/production A trend towards reducing the scope of government (privatization/decentralization)
11 Main Criticisms Directed to NPM 1- Focus on Efficiency : and the belief that government could and should be run like a business. 2- Focus on Customer rather than Citizen: A customer oriented model puts citizen in a reactive role.
N.P.M. Criticism Treating Americans as "customers" rather than "citizens" is an inappropriate borrowing from the private sector model, because businesses see customers are a means to an end (profit), rather than as the proprietors of government (the owners). people are viewed as economic units not democratic participants.
N.P.M. Nevertheless, the model is still widely accepted at all levels of government and in many OECD nations.
New Public Service – N.P.S This model's chief contribution is a focus on Americans as "citizens" rather than "customers" and strong interest in the adoption of private sector practices and values (e.g., efficiency). Accordingly, the citizen is expected to participate in government and take an active role throughout the policy process.
15 New Public Service (NPS) Principles / (Denhardt: 2003) -Help citizens articulate their mutual interest rather than to steer society in new directions. -Create collective and shared notion of public interest (dialogue rather than aggregation individual interests). -Effective and responsive policies and programs achieved through a collective effort and collaborative process.
16 New Public Service (NPS) Principles / (Denhardt: 2003) -PS is attentive to more than market. -Shared leadership is the way for successful public organizations / programs. -Public interest served better by PS and committed citizens than by managers acting as if public money were their own.
17 New Public Service Public servants do NOT deliver customer service.. They deliver Democracy!
18 Challenges for the Future of Public Service Economic Changes and Redefining Government (restricted expenditure / new issues / PPP/ privatization / decentralization) Globalization (growing international dimension of public administration) Technology and Work Environment (new people and new values / E-Government The Role of Citizens in the Governance Process (NPS and interactive decision making) Ethical and Moral Dimensions (PS are Guardians of Public Trust)
NPM /NPS - Criticism Some authors say NPM/NPS has peaked and is now in decline. The cutting edge of change has moved on to digital era governance focusing on reintegrating concerns into government control, holistic government and digitalization (exploiting the Web and digital storage and communication within government).digital era governance