Presentation on theme: "American Psychological Association (APA) 2010"— Presentation transcript:
1 American Psychological Association (APA) 2010 Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct
2 IntroductionEthics code has to do with professional work and not personal life.Members of APA have to follow these codes; however, even if you are not members of APA the certification boards and licensure boards may hold you to these ethical standards.Concerns of laws (criminal) and practice (civil) issues (ethics do not automatically equate to wining your civil case).Not knowing the ethical code is NO excuse for lack of compliance.First, do no harm
3 General Principles A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence: Benefit those you work withDo no harmB: Fidelity and ResponsibilityDo not exploit othersBe a citizen in communityC: IntegrityBe honest and truthfulDo not cheat or stealD: JusticeBe just and fairRemove biasE. Respect for People’s Rights and DignityPrivacy, confidentialityRight to self- determinationCultural Respect
4 Standard 1: Resolving Ethical Issues 1.01: Misuse of Psychologist’s WorkIf someone misuses your work, you must try to minimize the misuse.1.02: Conflicts Between Ethics, Law, Regs, or Gov’tWhen conflict 1) clarify the conflict, 2) make known the ethical issue, 3) take reasonable steps to fix it1.03: Conflicts Between Ethics and OrganizationWhen conflict 1) clarify the conflict, 2) make known the ethical issue, 3) take reasonable step to fix it1.04: Informal Resolution of Ethical ViolationsBring issues to the person first (unless informal is inappropriate or confidentiality is an issue).
5 Standard 1: Resolving Ethical Issues 1.05: Reporting Ethical ViolationsWhen cannot do informally: 1) refer to state or national committee, 2) refer to licensure boards1.06: Cooperating with Ethics CommitteesYou must cooperate if you are askedBe concerned about confidentiality issues1.07: Improper ComplaintsDo not file reckless complaints1.08: Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and RespondentsEmployers cannot make negative decisions because someone is being investigatedEmployers can make decisions based on findings of investigation
6 Standard 2: Competence 2.01: Boundaries of Competence Work within what you have trained to do: education, supervision, consultation, study, or professional experience.If you have similar knowledge and it would hurt client to refer out you can work with them.2.02: Providing Services in EmergenciesMay provide services even without training if refer out ASAP.2.03: Maintaining CompetenceMust keep learning as new information is available.2.04: Bases for Scientific and Professional JudgmentsUse scientific information to make decisions.
7 Standard 2: Competence 2.05: Delegation of Work to Others Do not delegate to others with dual relationship issues with clients.Only delegate work within the knowledge of your employee.Provide appropriate supervision of their work.Personal Problems and ConflictsIf your personal problems will impact your work do not even start it.If you become aware of a personal issue, take steps to limit the problems that are going to come from it.
8 Standard 3: Human Relations 3.01: Unfair DiscriminationDo not discriminate against others.3.02: Sexual HarassmentDon’t do it.3.03: Other HarassmentDon’t do that either.3.04: Avoiding HarmNope
9 Standard 3: Human Relations 3.05: Multiple RelationshipsPast, present, and/or future (expected) relationshipsIf can expect impaired objectivity or effectivenessIf can harm the other person in any wayMake sure that you accurately represent any conflicting relationships.3.06: Conflict of InterestDon’t take on situations where your objectivity or effectiveness could be effected by a conflict of interestDon’t take on situations where someone/group can be harmed by a conflict of interest.
10 Standard 3: Human Relations 3.07: Third-Party Requests for ServicesClarify what you will be doing and limits of it3.08: Exploitative RelationshipsDo not exploit others.3.09: Cooperation with Other ProfessionalsCooperate when it is in the best interest of the clients3.10: Informed ConsentTo provide any services must have it documentedIn understandable language (and level)For those incapable: 1) appropriate explanation, 2) assent, 3) consider their preferences, 4) consent from legal representative, 5) if court-ordered then let the client know
11 Standard 3: Human Relations 3.11: Psychological Services Delivered to or Through OrganizationsSteps: 1) Describe what you are doing for them, 2) the intended recipients/ clients, 3) relationships of individuals w/in organization, 4) uses of and access to information obtained, 5) limits of confidentiality.3.12: Interruption of Psychological ServicesMake a plan for if there may be illness, death, or relocation of therapist.Make a plan for if there is a relocation or financial change of client.
12 Standard 4: Privacy and Confidentiality 4.01: Maintaining ConfidentialityTake reasonable precautions (in all mediums) to maintain confidentiality4.02: Discussing the Limits of ConfidentialityDiscuss these with client ahead of time.If through electronics, must describe how this changes confidentiality.4.03: RecordingGet permission before recording
13 Standard 4: Privacy and Confidentiality 4.04: Minimizing Intrusions on PrivacyOnly describe in reports or orally information that is germane to purposeShould talk about clients only in relation to your work with those who appropriate4.05: DisclosuresCan disclose with appropriate consentCan disclose when allowed by law: 1) for professional services, 2) professional consults, 3) protect folks from harm, 4) obtain payment4.06: ConsultationsDo not release confidential info unless consent providedOnly discuss info relevant for help to client
14 Standard 5: Advertising and Other Public Statements 5.01: Avoidance of False or Deceptive StatementsDo not make public statements that are false or misleading5.02: Statements by OthersDo not compensate others for a news itemPaid advertisement must be clearly identified5.03: Description of Workshops and Non-Degree- Granting Educational ProgramsMake sure that advertisements/ fliers are accurate5.04: Media PresentationsPublic advice 1) based on professional information, 2) meet other ethical standards, 3) indicate no relationship established.
15 Standard 5: Advertising and Other Public Statements 5.05: TestimonialsCannot ask for ones from current clientsCannot ask for ones from vulnerable populations5.06: In-Person SolicitationDo not engage in in-person solicitation of business to those who are vulnerable to undue influence.Except: to provide disaster or community outreachExcept: implementing collateral contacts to benefit an already engaged client (e.g., family therapy).
16 Standard 6: Record Keeping and Fees 6.01: Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of RecordsCreate, control, maintain, disseminate, store, retain, and dispose of records to: 1) help with other service providers in the future, 2) replicate research studies, 3) meet institutional requirements, 4) ensure billing accuracy, 5) ensure legal compliance6.02: Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific WorkMaintain confidentiality in creating records and keeping databasesPlan on what to do with records in case therapist leaves6.03: Withholding Records for NonpaymentDon’t do it
17 Standard 6: Record Keeping and Fees 6.04: Fees and Financial ArrangementsReach an agreement ASAP about fees and billingFees should be 1) correctly represented, 2) legalIf they cannot pay, you need to discuss with the client any plans and steps to be taken6.05: Barter with Clients / PatientsCan only do it if it is not clinically contraindicated and nonexploitative6.06: Accuracy in Reports to Payors and Funding SourcesAccurate nature of services and feesWhen applicable, provide diagnosis and service provider6.07: Referrals and FeesPayment based on services provided and not on the referral itself
18 Standard 7: Education and Training 7.01: Design of Education and Training ProgramsTrainers ensure that the programs provide the appropriate knowledge and experiences to meet licensure and certification7.02: Descriptions of Education and Training ProgramsTrainers ensure accurate and current program descriptions and requirements7.03: Accuracy in TeachingTrainers: ensure accurate course syllabi and that modifications to it are made known to the students7.04: Student Disclosure of Personal InformationDo not require students to disclose personal information about previous experiences unless 1) this is listed in the admissions requirements, 2) needed to evaluate problems that might keep them from performing their duties
19 Standard 7: Education and Training 7.05: Mandatory Individual or Group TherapyTrainers allow for students to get this from non-program affiliated therapists if this is required.Faculty responsible for evaluation do not provide any required therapy.7.06: Assessing Student and Supervisee PerformanceTrainers establish a process for feedback at the beginning of the semesterTrainers evaluate students based on their actual performance.7.07: Sexual Relationships with Students and SuperviseesDon’t do it.
20 Standard 8: Research and Publication 8.01: Institutional approvalGet IRB approval prior to research8.02: Informed ConsentMust include several specific pieces of information about the study and the rights of the participation.8.03: Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in ResearchMust get consent unless 1) in naturalistic setting, 2) includes deception that is later disclosed during a debriefing.8.04: Client/ Patient, Student, and Subordinate Research ParticipantsProtect participants who are vulnerable (students, clients, etc.)Must give a choice when research participation is course requirement
21 Standard 8: Research and Publication 8.05: Dispensing with Informed Consent for ResearchCan do only 1) would do harm, 2) part of normal educational or occupational practices, 3) anonymous or naturalistic which will not harm the participant8.06: Offering Inducements for Research ParticipationDo not provide excessive financial or other incentives (coercions) or provide any incentive without full disclosure.8.07: Deception in ResearchAvoid it if possibleAvoid it at all of there will be physical or emotional painDebrief ASAP and allow subject to remove their data from study if they wish.
22 Standard 8: Research and Publication 8.08: DebriefingProvide a prompt opportunity for participants to obtain information about the research or if not possible take measures to reduce or minimize harm.8.09: Humane Care and Use of Animals in ResearchCare for animals in a legal, humane, manner by those trained to minimize discomfort and understand research.8.10: Reporting Research ResultsDo not fabricate data and issue corrections if you find that data is incorrect after publication8.11: PlagarismDon’t do it.
23 Standard 8: Research and Publication 8.12: Publication CreditTake credit for only work that you didStudent’s dissertations ensure #1 author position8.13: Duplicate Publication of DataDo not publish previously published data even if they were the previous authors8.14: Sharing Research Data for VerificationData cannot be horded from research competitors unless confidentiality prohibits it.Research competitors can only use data from another researcher for the strict purposes of review.8.15: Reviewers:Respect the confidentiality of those who submit work for review
24 Standard 9: Assessment 9.01: Bases for Assessment Data-drivenIf accurate comprehensive data not available indicate limits of what you report.9.02: Use of AssessmentsUse valid and reliable tests in the manner they were designed.Test only in the appropriate language for client.9.03: Informed Consent for AssessmentInformed consent is required except 1) mandated by law, 2) testing is routine part of education or occupation, 3) trying to determine competency for providing informed consentInform about nature and purpose of assessment in appropriate language understandable by test taker.Be careful when working with interpreter that they follow testing/assessment ethical guidelines.
25 Standard 9: Assessment 9.04: Release of Test Data Raw test data and notes during examination should be released with care as they may “do harm”Do not release to other than those approved by client unless court ordered.9.05: Test ConstructionTest developers do so using sound psychometrics9.06: Interpreting Assessment ResultsTake into account the person you tested as well as the data when interpreting results
26 Standard 9: Assessment 9.07: Assessment by Unqualified Persons Don’t do it.Don’t let others do it.9.08: Obsolete Tests and Outdated Test ResultsDo not base your decisions on these.9.09: Test Scoring and Interpretation ServicesDescribe the aspects of the assessments that you provide for others (e.g, psychometrics of tests).Use these types of services only after you have verified that they use psychometrically sound methods and are qualified.
27 Standard 9: Assessment 9.10: Explaining Assessment Results Take reasonable steps to explain results in a way that the client (or consumer of the data) can understandIf you cannot provide the information, then let the person know BEFORE conducting the assessment9.11: Maintaining Test SecurityMake reasonable efforts to not provide test materials to others.
28 Standard 10: Therapy 10.01: Informed Consent to Therapy Let clients know what to expect from therapy, confidentiality limits, and fees.If you are doing a “non-researched” therapy, you need to let client know.If you are training, you must let client know and provide name of supervisor.10.02: Therapy Involving Couples or FamiliesBe clear which individual(s) are your clientsIf you have to take on conflicting roles (e.g., divorce) then you need to clarify your roles and withdraw from previous roles if needed.10.03: Group TherapyDefine your rolesDefine limits of confidentiality10.04: Providing Therapy to Those Served by OthersProceed with caution and be wary of conflicts
29 Standard 10: Therapy10.05: Sexual Intimacies with Current Therapy Clients/ PatientsDon’t do it.10.06: Sexual Intimacies with Relatives or Significant Others of Current Therapy Clients/ PatientsDon’t dump your client to be able to do it.10.07: Therapy with Former Sexual Partners:10.08: Sexual Intimacies with Former Therapy Clients/ PatientsMust wait at least two years after termination of treatmentEven after two years, you hold burden of proof that 1) 2 years have passed, 2) nature and intensity of therapy, 3) why you terminated treatment, 4) client’s personal history, 5) client’s mental status, 6) likelihood of harm to client, 7) statements cannot have been made during treatment that by ending it that a sexual relationship would be fine posttreatment.
30 Standard 10: Therapy Interruption of Therapy: Terminating Therapy: Transition your clients appropriately if you are changing jobs or moving.Terminating Therapy:Client no longer needs serviceYou are threatened or endangered by client or a person with whom client has a relationshipPrior to termination provide pretermination counseling and suggest alternatives to the client if needed.