Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CHEMICAL BONDING p. 144-156. REMEMBER…. THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF PURE SUBSTANCES Elements Compounds.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CHEMICAL BONDING p. 144-156. REMEMBER…. THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF PURE SUBSTANCES Elements Compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHEMICAL BONDING p

2 REMEMBER…. THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF PURE SUBSTANCES Elements Compounds

3 Elements  Substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.  Ex’s- any box on the periodic table  Made of only 1 type of atom  The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element  HUH?

4 The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element???  The element sodium has certain properties  11 protons, 11 electrons, etc and that determines properties like boiling point, reactivity, etc.

5 Compounds cont…  Substance made of atoms of 2 or more different elements that are CHEMICALLY combined.  Elements are combined in a definite way and this changes their properties Na - lethal if ingested Cl- lethal if ingested NaCl- table salt

6 Molecules  Two or more atoms bonded together…  They can be two of the same element or two different elements- this would be a compound  All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds.  Ex- O 2, NaCl, etc.

7 Compounds  Molecules made by two or more elements bonded together - always in a definite ratio Elements  Molecules made of just one element Na (sodium) NaCl (sodium chloride/salt)

8 Let’s start the new notes…

9 Compound/Molecule  Chemical combination of 2 or more elements.  Properties of the compound are unlike those of the elements that make it.  Represented by a formula that gives the ratio of atoms of the elements.  Ex- The formula NaCl tells you that salt is a compound made of one Na and one Cl. The ratio is then 1:1

10 Chemical Bond  Force which holds atoms together.  3 Types: Metallic Ionic Covalent Polar Nonpolar

11 Metallic Bonds  Formed between 2 or more metal atoms (elements).  Valence electrons overlap.  The electrons are free to move about all the atoms; therefore, they are good conductors of electricity.  Ex) Mg, Cu, Fe, etc. form these types of bonds

12 Ionic Bonds (formed in ionic compounds)  IONS are the basic unit (atom with a charge).  CATION = ion that has a + charge (lost e - ‘s)  ANION = ion that has a – charge (gained e - ‘s)

13 How are these ions made?  Can you mess with protons?  Would messing with neutrons do anything to the charge?  What must you mess with???  What charge does an electron have?  So what would happen to the atom if they LOSE one? Would they get more positive or more negative overall???

14 How do ions stick together?  Force of attraction between oppositely charged ions.  (anion & cation)  Ionic bonds are very strong bonds.  Formed between metal & nonmetal atoms (elements).  Electronegativity difference between the atoms is 1.7 or greater. (see table on last page of notes)  Ex) Na & Cl

15 Ionic Compounds: pack into a pattern (crystal; lattice) have very high melting points.

16 Ionic Compound Cont… Dissolve in water (H 2 O), and ions are then free to move (dissociate). Conduct electric current.

17 Covalent Bonds (formed in molecular/covalent compounds)  Atoms are the basic unit.  Covalent bonds are firm, but molecules not strongly held together.  Force between atoms that share electrons.

18 Kinds of Covalent Bonds  Can share different number of electrons: Single- share ONE pair of electrons Double- share TWO pair of electrons Triple- share THREE pairs of electrons  Can be polar covalent or nonpolar covalent bonds.

19 Nonpolar Covalent bonds: Electrons are shared equally in the bond. Does not have (+) and (-) end to the bond. Formed between 2 or more of the same nonmetal. Electronegativity difference between the atoms (elements) is 0. (see table on last page of notes) Ex) Cl & Cl

20 Polar Covalent bonds: Electrons are NOT shared equally in the bond. Has a (+) and (-) end to the bond. Formed between 2 different nonmetals. Electronegativity difference between the atoms (elements) is (see table on last page of notes) Ex) H & O C & O

21 Polar vs Nonpolar Covalent Bonding

22 How do you know which type of bond will form? Use two rules:  Calculation using electronegativity values on a periodic table: (Note: if they are both/all metals, automatically, it is a metallic bond!)  Subtract the values of the 2 elements (larger minus smaller)  If difference is: 0= nonpolar covalent bond = polar covalent bond 1.7 & up= ionic bond

23 Electronegativity Differences summary… If difference is: Electronegativities are not different enough to steal the electron away, but there will be a “bully” who hugs the electrons closer If differenc is 1.7 & up Electronegativities are so great that one atom will steal the eletron away 0 difference Electronegativities are the same, so the atoms will share nicely

24 A second way… “rule of thumb”  2) Periodic table/metal, nonmetal rule (Rule of thumb):  Metal and Metal = metallic bond  Metal and nonmetal = ionic bond  Nonmetal and nonmetal = covalent All same nonmetal = nonpolar covalent bond Different nonmetals = polar covalent bond

25 Rule of thumb summary… Two different nonmetals A metal with a nonmetal Two Metals Both the same metal

26 Covalent/ Molecular Compounds: Not packed into a pattern. Have low melting points. May not dissolve in water (H 2 O), but some can. Do not conduct electricity; do not dissociate.


Download ppt "CHEMICAL BONDING p. 144-156. REMEMBER…. THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF PURE SUBSTANCES Elements Compounds."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google