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Types of Chemical Bonds Honors Chemistry/Biology 10 th grade - Ferguson.

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1 Types of Chemical Bonds Honors Chemistry/Biology 10 th grade - Ferguson

2 What is a Chemical Bond? The interaction between electrons of different atoms. The electron cloud of an atom reacts to any electric charge, not just that of its own nucleus. –Can even react to the positive charge of another atom’s nucleus. There are different kinds of interactions between atoms depending on the elements.

3 Electrons have a negative electric charge. If negative charges repel each other, how does an atom stay together?

4 proton: a tiny particle in the nucleus that has a positive charge. neutral: having zero total electric charge. Protons in the nucleus have a positive electric charge. Electrons have a negative electric charge.

5 Because the electrons have energy and momentum - The same reason why the Earth does not fall into the sun, but gravitates around it instead. Why don’t the negative electrons “fall” into the positive nucleus?

6 Electrons are responsible for bond formation. Electrons can be: + -

7 Enthalpy of formation ∆H f (kJ/mole) Chemical bonds form because there is an advantage in energy. Lower energy = more stable

8 Metals are good conductors of electricity and heat Density Hardness Elasticity Transparency Strength Electrical conductivity Thermal conductivity Physical properties of Metals Why? Metallic bonding

9 Electrons are small, light, and therefore fast They can carry energy quicklyThermal conductivity They can carry charges quicklyElectrical conductivity

10 Metallic bonding Solo (unbonded) metal atom Metals have low ionization energies; valence electrons are not strongly bound to their parent atoms. A metal is like a fixed lattice of positive ions in a sea of free electrons

11 Ionic Bonds Occurs between a metal and non-metal. Happen when one or more electrons are transferred between atoms. Causes one atom to become positive, and one to become negative. The oppositely charged ions are now attracted to each other.

12 In ionic compounds, electrons are NOT SHARED but TRANSFERRED. 1 electron Sodium ion Chloride ion Cl –1 +1 Na Sodium atomChlorine atom Ionic bond Cl Na

13 Ionic Bond Example:

14 In ionic compounds, electrons are NOT SHARED but TRANSFERRED. Magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) is also an ionic compound. Magnesium ion 1 electron +2 Mg –1 Chloride ionCl –1 Chloride ion Chloride atom Mg Magnesium atom Cl Ionic bond

15 Covalent Bonds Occurs between 2 non-metals. When electrons are shared between atoms to fill the outer shell of each. As 2 atoms approach each other, each nucleus begins to tug on the other’s electrons. Eventually, the orbitals overlap, forming a covalent bond.

16 Covalent Bond Example:

17 Covalent bonds A chemical bond is formed by sharing or transferring electrons. covalent bond: a chemical bond that consists of two shared electrons. molecule: a neutral group of atoms bonded together by covalent bonds. There are two covalent bonds in a water molecule.

18 Polar Covalent Bonds In polar bonds, electrons are not shared equally between the atoms. Occur when there is a large difference in electronegativity. As a result, polar bonds have dipoles (positive and negative ends).

19 Non-Polar Covalent Bonds When there is little difference in the electronegativity. Electrons are equally shared between the atoms.

20 Single bonds Double bondTriple bond Some elements can share multiple electrons with the same atom. Multiple bonds

21 Determining Polarity Electronegativity differences between atoms sharing electrons can predict polarity. Use numbers from pg 204 in textbook Bond TypeElectronegativity Difference Non-polar covalent Less than 0.5 Polar covalentBetween IonicLarger difference due to a bond between a metal and a non-metal atom

22 Polar and Non-Polar Bonds 4.0 – 4.0 = 0 Non-Polar Bond 4.0 – 2.1 = 1.9 Polar Bond

23 Valence Electrons and Bonding Patterns Only unpaired valence electrons bond. In a molecular compound, each unpaired electron can form one covalent bond.

24 In the diagram to the right, the arrow shows which way the shared electrons are being pulled in the polar bond. The q + and q - indicate the partial positive and negative ends of the molecule. q+q+ q-q-

25 Determining if a Molecule has Polar Geometry 1.If all bonds in the molecule are non- polar, then the whole molecule is non- polar. 2.If there are polar bonds, but there is symmetry in the molecule, then the molecule is non-polar. 3.If there are polar bonds, but there is no symmetry, the molecule is polar.

26 Molecular Geometries When all attached atoms are the same… SymmetricalNot Symmetrical TetrahedralTrigonal Pyramidal Trigonal PlanarBent Linear

27 Carbon Dioxide Each C-O bond is polar, however the symmetry of the molecule leads to the bonds cancelling each other out. Therefore, CO 2 is a non-polar molecule.

28 Water Each O-H bond is polar, and the molecule is not symmetrical, so water is a polar molecule.

29 CH 4 CCl 4 CH 3 F Non-Polar Bonds Polar BondsC-F bond is polar C-H bonds are not Symmetrical Not Symmetrical Non-Polar Molecule Polar Molecule

30 Learning Check 1.Which electrons are involved in bonding? 2.What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonds? 3.What determines polarity? 4.Hydrogen and Carbon bond together. What kind of bond is this? 5.Sodium and Fluorine bond together. What kind of bond is this? 6.How many bonds does Potassium make? 7.How many bonds does Aluminum make? 8.How many bonds does Sulfur make? 9.How many bonds does Neon make?

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