Elements Goal = Stability Elements want to be stable In order to be stable they need to fill their outermost energy level completely – “Complete its octet” (oct meaning 8) – When outer level is filled No Charge = Stable – When outer level is not filled Charge = Unstable
How do we figure out and elements charge? Charge is determined by how many electrons they need to gain or lose to complete their outer level Every element in a group has the same charge – Example: All Halogens are -1 Logical Order Group12131415161718 Charge+1+2+3+/- 4-3-20
Add the following charges to the triangles at the bottom of your periodic table
Lets look at Magnesium. What is its charge? Lets look at Sulfur. What is its charge?
How can elements complete their octet? 2 Ways – Ionic bonds One element gives/takes electron from another element – Covalent Bonds Two elements share electrons
Ionic Bonds Bond in which one or more electrons from one atom are removed and attached to another atom. It is when atoms transfer electrons – One element gives electron – One element takes electron
How does ionic bonding work? Ionic Bonds occur between metals and nonmetals Opposite charges are going to attract Their charges will cancel out and become 0 – 0 = Stable – Example: +1 + -1 = 0
Lets look at an example Why does NaCl work as an ionic bond?
Na +1 Cl -1 Opposites Attract * NaCl* Neutral and stable
How does the sharing work? Na has the 1 lone electron to share in its outermost level Cl needs 1 to complete its octet Na will give 1 electron to Cl
Ionic Bonding Problems Step 1: Draw Lewis Dot Diagrams; Draw an arrow showing where the electron is moved Step 2: Rewrite the elements with their charges Step 3: Write the final compound Step 4: Write the name of the compound
Naming Ionic Compounds When you name a compound, you first put the metal and then the nonmetal. The nonmetal word would end in “-ide” instead of whatever it normally ends in So combining Na and Cl would be – SODIUM CHLORIDE
Ionic Bonding Problem: Sodium and Sulfur Step 1: Write Lewis dot with arrow Step 2: Write charges Step 3: Write Final Compound Step 4: Write Name
Example: Sodium and Sulfur Step 1 Step 2 Na +1 S -2 Na +1 Step 3 Na 2 S Step 4 : Sodium Sulfide