Presentation on theme: "Complete the worksheet on the structure of the atom"— Presentation transcript:
1 Complete the worksheet on the structure of the atom
2 review of atomic structure and bonding LEARNING GOAL – to review Y11 work on the structure of the atom and bonding
3 Types of bonding Atoms can be bonded in three different ways: Ionic bondingMetal and non-metal atomsCovalent bondingNon-metal atoms onlyMetallic bondingMetal atoms onlyBonding occurs because atoms with incomplete outer electron shells are unstable. By forming bonds, atoms completely fill their outer shells and become stable.All types of bonding involve changes in the number of electrons in the outer shells of atoms.
4 Ionic compoundsCompounds that contain ions are called ionic compounds. These compounds are usually formed by a reaction between a metal and a non-metal.Both the metal and non-metal atoms have incomplete outer electron shells and so are unstable.One or more electrons are transferred from each metal atom to each non-metal atom. The metal and the non-metal atoms end up with completely full outer shells and become very stable.The positive and negative ions are strongly attracted to each other. This electrostatic attraction is called an ionic bond.
5 Sodium chlorideSodium chloride is an ionic compound formed by the reaction between the metal sodium and the non-metal chlorine.sodiumNachlorineClsodium chlorideNaCl+During the reaction, one electron is transferred from each sodium atom to each chlorine atom.
6 Sodium chloride - + 2.8.1 [2.8]+ 2.8.7 [2.8.8]- Sodium has 1 electron in its outer shell. If it loses this electron, it will have no partially-filled shells.Chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell. If it gains 1 electron, it will completely fill its outer shell.-NaClNaCl+2.8.1[2.8]+2.8.7[2.8.8]-
7 Sodium chlorideThe positive sodium ions and the negative chloride ions are strongly attracted to each other and form an ionic bond.Cl-Na+
8 More complicated ionic bonding Sodium chloride and magnesium oxide are simple ionic compounds. In each case, the metal and non-metal need to lose and gain the same number of electrons.NaNa+ClCl-1 electronMgMg2+O2-O2 electronsThis is not always the case.
9 Sodium oxideSodium (2.8.1) needs to lose 1 electron but oxygen (2.6) needs to gain 2 electrons. Therefore, two sodium atoms are required for each oxygen atom.O2-ONa+Na1 electron per atom
10 Magnesium chloride Mg Mg2+ Cl Cl- Magnesium (2.8.2) needs to lose 2 electrons but chlorine (2.8.7) needs to gain 1 electron. Therefore, two chlorine atoms are required for each magnesium atom.1 electron for each atomMgMg2+ClCl-
11 Covalent bondingWhen non-metal atoms react together, they need to gain electrons to fill their outer shell and become stable.HHincomplete outer shellsThey can only do this if they share electrons with each other.Hboth atoms have a full outer shellThe atoms share electrons so there is a strong force that joins the atoms together. This is called a covalent bond.
12 Covalent bonding and elements Many elements exist as molecules – two or more atoms joined by a covalent bond. Each atom has a full outer electron shell and is therefore stable.HHOOClClOnly the outer shell of electrons is involved in covalent bonding. This means that the inner shells do not always have to be included in diagrams.Two ways to indicate a covalent bond are:solid lineH–dot and cross diagramH
13 Covalent bonding in oxygen Oxygen (2.8.6) needs 2 more electrons to have a completely full outer shell.To achieve this, it can share two electrons with another oxygen atom. This creates a double bond.OOOO2 or O=O
14 Covalent bonding in nitrogen Nitrogen (2.8.5) needs 3 more electrons to have a completely full outer shell.It can share three electrons with another nitrogen atom to do this. This creates a triple bond.NNNN2 or N≡N
15 Covalent bonding in compounds Covalent bonding can take place between atoms of different elements to create molecules of covalent compounds. These covalent bonds can be single, double or triple.Both hydrogen (1) and chlorine (2.8.7) need 1 more electron to fill their outer shell. By sharing one electron each, they can fill their outer shells and become stable.ClHHCl or H Cl
16 Covalent bonding in water Oxygen (2.6) needs 2 more electrons, but hydrogen (1) only needs 1 more. How can these two elements be covalently bonded?The oxygen atom shares 1 electron with 1 hydrogen atom, and a second electron with another hydrogen atom.OHHH2O or H O H
17 Covalent bonding in ammonia How are nitrogen and hydrogen bonded in ammonia?NHElectron configurationElectrons neededRatio of atomsN2.5 1HH3 11 3HNH3 or H N HH
18 Covalent bonding in methane How are carbon and hydrogen bonded in methane?HCHElectron configurationElectrons neededRatio of atomsC2.4 1HH4 11 4HCH4 or H C HH
19 More covalent bonding diagrams Draw a line diagram to show the bonding in:HS1. hydrogen sulfide2. carbon dioxideOCHC3. ethane (C2H6)