Presentation on theme: "English Language IV. Unit 23 - Vocabulary substantially /s ə b ˈ stæn ʃ ə li/ - very much : a lot – bitno, značajno It's substantially [=considerably]"— Presentation transcript:
Unit 23 - Vocabulary substantially /s ə b ˈ stæn ʃ ə li/ - very much : a lot – bitno, značajno It's substantially [=considerably] less expensive to buy a used car than a new car. Costs have increased substantially [=significantly] in recent years. validity /v ə ˈ l ɪ d ə ti/ - the state of being acceptable according to the law - valjanost The validity of the contract/document is being questioned.
Unit 23 - Vocabulary universal tendency wide network of banks centered upon trading center structure of banks
Unit 23 - Vocabulary financial system: A financial system can be defined at the global, regional or firm specific level. The firm's financial system is the set of implemented procedures that track the financial activities of the company. On a regional scale, the financial system is the system that enables lenders and borrowers to exchange funds. The global financial system is basically a broader regional system that encompasses all financial institutions, borrowers and lenders within the global economy.
Unit 23 - Vocabulary central bank: The entity responsible for overseeing the monetary system for a nation (or group of nations). Central banks have a wide range of responsibilities, from overseeing monetary policy to implementing specific goals such as currency stability, low inflation and full employment. Central banks also generally issue currency, function as the bank of the government, regulate the credit system, oversee commercial banks, manage exchange reserves and act as a lender of last resort.
Unit 23 - Vocabulary commercial bank: A financial institution that provides services such as a accepting deposits and giving business loans. financial institutions: An establishment that focuses on dealing with financial transactions, such as investments, loans and deposits. Conventionally, financial institutions are composed of organizations such as banks, trust companies, insurance companies and investment dealers. Almost everyone has deal with a financial institution on a regular basis. Everything from depositing money to taking out loans and exchange currencies must be done through financial institutions.
Unit 23 - Vocabulary financial intermediaries: An institution that acts as the middleman between investors and firms raising funds. Often referred to as financial institutions. This can include chartered banks, insurance companies, investment dealers, mutual funds, and pension funds.
Unit 23 - Vocabulary intermediary / ˌɪ nt ɚˈ mi : di ˌ eri/ - a person who works with opposing sides in an argument or dispute in order to bring about an agreement - posrednik He served as an intermediary between the workers and the executives. to mediate / ˈ mi : di ˌ e ɪ t/ - to work with opposing sides in an argument or dispute in order to get an agreement – posredovati He has been appointed by the government to mediate (in the dispute) between the company and the striking workers.
Unit 23 - Vocabulary capital goods : Any tangible assets that an organization uses to produce goods or services such as office buildings, equipment and machinery. Consumer goods are the end result of this production process. – kapitalna dobra, investiciona dobra
Indirect Speech - Imperative Imperative sentences use the base verb (bare infinitive) to ask a person to perform an action. Imperative sentences can be: Commands/ orders: Finish your work on time. Directions: Take the elevator to the seventh floor and go to Suite 710. Instructions: Complete the form in blue or black ink. Requests/ invitations: Please sign in at the security desk. Warnings: Don’t use the elevator in case of a fire.
Indirect Speech - Imperative We often report imperatives with the reporting verb tell or ask. The structure is as follows: [WHO + tell/ ask (often in the simple past tense) + WHOM + infinitive]
Indirect Speech - Imperative My supervisor told me to finish my work on time. The woman at the reception desk told me to take the elevator to the seventh floor and go to Suite 710. The receptionist told me to complete the form in blue or black ink. They asked me to sign in at the security desk. The building manager told us not to use the elevator in case of a fire.
Indirect Speech - Imperative Examples: Direct: The old woman said to the boy, ‘Please help me.’ Indirect: The old woman requested the boy to help her. Direct: I said to him, ‘Love and obey your parents.’ Indirect: I advised him to love and obey his parents. OR I advised that he should love and obey his parents.
Indirect Speech - Imperative Direct: The teacher said to the students, ‘Work hard.’ Indirect: The teacher advised the boys to work hard. OR The teacher suggested that the boys should work hard. Direct: Jim said to me, ‘Please lend me your pen.’ Indirect: Jim requested me to lend him my pen. Direct: The doctor said to the patient, ‘Quit smoking.’ Indirect: The doctor advised the patient to quit smoking. OR The doctor suggested that the patient should quit smoking.
Indirect Speech - Imperative Direct: The officer said to the clerk, ‘Do it immediately.’ Indirect: The officer ordered the clerk to do it immediately. Direct: The teacher said to the boy, ‘Come in, please.’ Indirect: The teacher allowed (or asked) the boy to come in. Direct: He said to me, ‘Post this letter at once.’ Indirect: He ordered me to post that letter at once.
Indirect Speech - Imperative Direct: I said to the children, ‘Do not make a noise.’ Indirect: I forbade the children to make a noise. (NOT I forbade the children not to make a noise.) Direct: I said to her, ‘Don’t mention his name.’ Indirect: I forbade her to mention his name. Direct: I said to the child, ‘Do not look down into the well.’ Indirect: I warned the child not to look down into the well. Direct: He said to me, ‘Wait here till I return.’ Indirect: He asked me to wait there till he returned.