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Instructor: Manuela Gardner Textbook: Principles of Animal Physiology Course website (Manuela Gardner): www.zoology.ubc.ca/~gardner Biology 364 – Animal.

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Presentation on theme: "Instructor: Manuela Gardner Textbook: Principles of Animal Physiology Course website (Manuela Gardner): www.zoology.ubc.ca/~gardner Biology 364 – Animal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instructor: Manuela Gardner Textbook: Principles of Animal Physiology Course website (Manuela Gardner): Biology 364 – Animal Physiology

2 Manuela Gardner Office: Room 1370, Biological Sciences Bldg. Office Hours: Fridays Contact info

3 Respiratory System – uptake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide Circulatory System –primary internal transport for substances (eg oxygen & nutrients) and other functions Ion and water regulation – deals with ion and water balance, and nitrogen excretion Biology 364 – Animal Physiology

4 Marking Scheme  Problem sets: 30% 1 per section (3 total) These will be representative of questions given on the final exam.  Final: Open book/notes - 70% Grading and assessment

5 Animal Physiology - definition  “The study of how animals work” – Knut Schmidt-Nielsen  Structure and function of various parts - How these parts work together

6 Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1) Physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws Physiological processes are usually regulated –Homeostasis – maintenance of internal constancy Phenotype is a product of genotype and its interaction with the environment –Genotype – genetic makeup –Phenotype – expression of genotype in morphology, physiology, and behavior –Phenotypic plasticity – single genotype generates more than one phenotypic outcome depending on environmental conditions Genotype is the product of evolution

7 Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1) Physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws  Physical properties of a material are linked to function (e.g., bone)  Chemical laws govern molecular interactions (e.g., effects of temperature)  Electrical laws describe membrane function, including excitable cells  Body size influences biochemical and physical patterns – allometric scaling

8 Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1) Physiological processes are usually regulated –Homeostasis – maintenance of internal constancy How do animals deal with variations in their environment?

9 Conformers (a) Allow internal conditions to change when faced with variations in external conditions (b) Internal environment adjusts to reflect external conditions Physiological Regulation

10 Moyes and Schulte; Figure 1.4 Physiological Regulation

11 Regulators (a) Maintain relatively constant internal conditions regardless of the conditions in the external environment (b) Keep internal environment within narrow limits Physiological Regulation

12 Maintenance of internal conditions in the face of environmental perturbations Controlled by feedback loops or reflex control pathways –Negative feedback loops –Positive feedback loops Figure 1.5 Physiological Regulation - Homeostasis

13 Phenotype is a product of genotype and its interaction with the environment –Genotype – genetic makeup –Phenotype – morphology, physiology, and behavior –Phenotypic plasticity – single genotype generates more than one phenotype depending on environmental conditions Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)

14 Can be irreversible or reversible Irreversible –Polyphenism - developmental plasticity Reversible –Acclimation - lab –Acclimatization – natural environment Phenotypic Plasticity

15 Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1) Genotype is the product of evolution Adaptation –Change in a population over evolutionary time (i.e. many generations) Trait that confers an increase in reproductive success via natural selection

16 Physiologists attempt to understand and account for diversity of animal body form and strategies that animals use to cope with their environments Two types of questions Proximate cause – How? Ultimate cause – Why? Physiology and evolution

17 Respiratory System – uptake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide Circulatory System –primary internal transport for substances (eg oxygen & nutrients) and other functions Ion and water regulation – deals with ion and water balance, and nitrogen excretion Biology 364 – Animal Physiology


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