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LINEAR MOTION AND NEWTON’S LAWS 1) Table 7.1 shows the speed of a 19 year-old male sprinter during a 200m race. Table 7.1 – data for a 200 metres sprint speed or ms-1time or seconds 0.00 6.01 7.52 8.23 8.44 8.55 8.57 8.48 8.310 8.213 8.118 8.022 a) Plot a graph of speed against time during this race. When does he reach maximum speed and what happens to his speed between 8 and 22 seconds? 7 marks

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answer –See speed / time graph in figure AQ7.1. – Horizontal axis correctly scaled and labelled. – Vertical axis correctly scaled and labelled. – 2 marks for points plotted correctly. – Curve drawn correctly. –Speed between 8 and 22 seconds: – Maximum speed is reached between 5 to 7 seconds. – After 8 seconds there is a gradual slowing down.

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question –Use the graph to establish his speed at 0.5 seconds and 1.5 seconds and calculate the average acceleration between 0.5 and 1.5 seconds. 3 marks

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answer – At 0.5 seconds, speed = 3.0 ms-1 (allow + or - 0.2). – At 1.5 seconds, speed = 6.8 ms-1 (allow + or - 0.3). – Acceleration = change of speed per second = 6.8 - 3.0 (in 1 second) = 3.8 ms-2.

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question –c) Successful games players are often able to change their velocity rapidly in the game situation. –Explain the biomechanics behind this ability using examples from a game of your choice. 6 marks

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answer –The force applied to the person is that between footwear and ground - friction. – The factors which govern the size of friction force are the weight of the individual, the nature of the surface and footwear used. – Newton’s 3rd law applies between foot and ground. – The sportsperson pushes on the ground (the action force), the ground pushes back with a reaction force (which is equal in size but opposite in direction to the action force) on the person. – Acceleration = rate of change of velocity, velocity includes the direction. – Newton’s 2nd law tells us how much acceleration is produced by the force acting. – The formula: force = mass x acceleration, enables you to work out the acceleration. – Hence the bigger the force (the stronger the person) the greater the change in velocity. – If the force is sideways to the direction of motion at the time, then the direction is changed. – A sideways force causes swerving (change of direction but no change of speed). – A force in the direction of motion causes increase or decrease in speed.

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question –2) a) A sprinter uses her calf muscles to push on the blocks at the start of a run. Explain, using Newton’s laws, how this enables her to accelerate forwards out of the blocks. 3 marks

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answer –Newton’s 3rd law of motion - action and reaction are equal and opposite in direction. – When the sprinter pushes down and back on the ground. – The ground pushes up and forward on her. – Newton’s 2nd law of motion - if a force is exerted, then this produces an acceleration in the same direction as the force (forwards).

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question –If the resultant forward force was 300 newtons and the runner’s mass was 60 kg, what would be her acceleration? –2 marks

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Answer – Newton’s 2nd law gives force = mass x acceleration. – Therefore: 300 N = 60 kg x acceleration. – Hence: acceleration = 300 = 5 ms-2. 60

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question –What would be the speed of the runner after 1.5 seconds, assuming that the acceleration is the same over that period of time? 2 marks

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answer –Speed changes by 5 ms-1 each second. – Therefore total change of speed in 1.5 seconds = 7.5 ms-1.

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question –d) A squash player drives forward into a forehand stroke. Show how Newton’s third law of motion explains his ability to do this. 3 marks

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Answer – Newton’s 3rd law says that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. – In this case the action is the force exerted by the player pushing backwards on the ground (squash court). – The reaction is the forward force exerted by the ground on the player. – See diagram AQ7.2.

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question –e) Explain why the turn in the discus throw produces greater horizontal range than the standing throw. 3 marks

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answer – Force is applied to the discus over a larger distance. – Over a longer period of time. – Therefore acceleration is produced for a longer time (Newton’s 2nd law of motion). – Hence greater velocity given to the discus over and above the standing throw.

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question »Figure 7.11 shows the forces acting on a runner at the start of a race. Use a vector diagram to show how you could work out the resultant force acting. 3 marks The resultant is horizontal, showing that the net force is forwards.

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answer –Sketch a pin man drawing of a person standing still showing all the forces acting on him. 2 marks –Note that the force arrows are equal indicating that the forces cancel out - there is zero net force. – The upward reaction force R acts at the feet, the weight W acts at the centre of mass.

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question »Sketch a second diagram showing the vertical forces acting on a basketballer just before take-off while performing a jump shot. Represent the relative sizes of any forces you show by the length of the force arrows on your diagram. 2 marks

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answer »See figure AQ7.5. » The upward reaction force R acts at the take off foot, W acts at the centre of mass. » Note that the upward arrow is bigger than the downward arrow, which means that there is a net upward force acting on the jumpe

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question »Use this second diagram and your understanding of Newton’s laws of motion to explain why the basketballer is able to take off. If the vertical upward ground reaction force on him is 2000N, and his weight is 800N, estimate the net upward force acting on him. 4 marks

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answer –Newton’s second law of motion says that acceleration is linked to net force. – So since here there is a net upward force, there will be an upward acceleration. – Which of course will give him or her a vertical upward velocity which will enable the jumper to take off. – Net upward force F = 2000 - 800 = 1200 N.

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question –The four man bobsleigh develops a large momentum during the first few seconds of its run. –a) Explain the meaning of the term momentum, and explain why the four man bobsleigh travelling at a speed of 28 ms-1 has a different momentum to a skier moving at the same speed. 2 marks

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answer –Momentum = mass x velocity, and is therefore a combination of mass and velocity. – A four man bob has four people in it and therefore (approximately) four times the mass of a lone skier. Hence the momentum of the bob when full of its men will be (approximately) four times that of the skier at the same speed.

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question –Explain using Newton’s laws of motion how the bobsleigh acquires its large momentum during the first part of a run. –4 marks

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answer –The force applied to the bob comes via Newton’s 3rd Law. – Which says that action and reaction are equal in size but opposite in direction. – The four bobmen push hard on the ground backwards (action), and the ground pushes hard forwards on the men (and the bob) (reaction). – The force is linked to the change of momentum (or acceleration) of the bob by Newton’s 2nd Law. – This says that Force = rate of change of momentum (= mass x acceleration). – So large forces give large changes of momentum (or acceleration or change of velocity).

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question –Explain how the use of a follow-through would affect the motion of the ball. 4 marks

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answer –The force is applied to ball for longer. – Impulse = force x time over which force acts. – Therefore increase in impulse of force acting on ball. – Impulse = change of momentum of ball. – Therefore increase in momentum of ball. – Increase in velocity or speed of ball. – More control of direction. – Ball travels further.

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Goal: To understand Newton’s 2 nd law and its applications to motions. Objectives: 1)To learn about how accelerations work 2)To understand Newton’s Force.

Goal: To understand Newton’s 2 nd law and its applications to motions. Objectives: 1)To learn about how accelerations work 2)To understand Newton’s Force.

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