Presentation on theme: "Functional anatomy of the muscles of the limbs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Functional anatomy of the muscles of the limbs Development of the limb musclesPeculiarities of the limb musclesAuxiliary apparatus of the limb musclesDifferences of the upper and lower limb musclesTopography of the upper limbTopography of the lower limbWeak places of the pelvis and hernias
2 Development of the limb muscles It is supposed that muscles of the limbs are developed from the cells of the ventral myotomes which migrate into the mesenchyme bud of the limb.Muscles which are inserted to the bones of free limb with both ends form the Autochthonous group of the muscles.Some muscles which are derivatives of migrated cells move one its end to the trunk and become inserted to it. Such muscles form the Trunkopetal group of the muscles (e.g. pectoral major and minor muscles, latissimus dorsi muscle).The third group is developed from the myotomes of the trunk and is inserted with one end to the bones of the limb forming the Trunkofugal muscles ( trapesium m., rhomboid mm., levator scapulae m., anterior serrate m).At the lower limbs trunkofugal muscles are absent.Trunkopetal muscles of the lower limb: greater psoas m., quadratus lumborum m..
3 Peculiarities of the limb muscles Big amount of the long musclesPresence of big amount of muscular annexions:- retinaculi,synovial vagines,synovial bursae,tendinous vinculae,fibromuscular canals.
4 Localization of the limb muscles Muscles have perpendicular direction to the axis of movement at the joint.Minimum one pair of muscles /one by one for opposite movements/ exist for each axis.Function of each muscle depends on the its position to the axis of movement.
5 Retinaculi of the upper limb Retinaculum flexorumCanalis carpi radialis:tendon m. flexor carpi radialis.Canalis carpalis:Synovial vagines of tendons of musclesflexor digitorum,tendon of m.flexoris pollicis longus,nervus medianus.Canalis carpi ulnaris:Arteria ulnarisVena ulnarisNervus ulnaris
7 Synovial sheaths of the palmar and dorsal surface of the hand
8 Retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb Retinaculum extensorumIt presses the tendons of the anterior leg muscles to the bonesIt has 2 parts:1. Upper /between the leg bones above the malleoli/2. Lower /distally in front of the ankle joint, Y-shaped/- originates from the lateral surface of the calcaneus and tarsal sinusseparates into two bands:a) superior - passes to the medial malleolus;b) inferior – to the navicular and medial cuneiform bonesIt splits into a superficial and deep layers the extensor tendons forming four fibrous canalsI – synovial vagine of the extensor digitorum longus andperoneus tertius mII - synovial vagine of the extensor hallucis longusIII- synovial vagine of the tibialis anterior muscleIV – blood vessels and nerve
9 Retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb Retinaculum flexorumPasses from the calcaneus to the medial malleolusForms 4 osteofibrous canals:I – synovial vagine of the tibialis posterior,II - synovial vagine of the flexor digitorum longus,III – synovial vagine of the flexor hallucis longus,IV – posterior tibial artery and tibial nerve.
10 Retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb Retinaculum peroneorumIt has 2 parts:1) Upper- from the lateral malleolus tothe calcaneus,- transmits the common synovialvagine of the peroneus longus andbrevis musclesLower- located on the lateral surface ofhe calcaneum,- transmits separated synovialvagines of the peroneus longusand brevis muscles.
11 Synovial vagines and the grooves of the plantar surface
12 Differences of the muscles of the upper and lower limbs Amounts of the muscles of upper limbs is biggerVolum and weight of the muscles is bigger at the lower limbsLower limbs haven’t group of the muscles pronatorsPelvic girdle doesn’t have proper muscles, these muscles are well developed at the shoulder girdleFlexors prevail at the upper limbs, extensors – at the lower limbs.Lower limbs have well developed group of adductors.Muscles of the upper limbs have small surface of attachment to the bones.At the upper limb point of effort is placed closely to the fulcrum than at the lower limb.
13 Topography of the upper limb Axillary fossaIt is seen in abductionIt is bounded: inferiorly by the greater pectoral m. in front;by the latissimus dorsi and teres major m. – behind;medially – by an imaginary line between borders of these mm. onthe chestlaterally – by a connecting line on the inner surface of the upperarm.Axillary cavityAnterior wall – major and minor pectoral muscles:3 triangles clavipectoralpectoralinfrapectoral;Posterior wall – subscapular m.teres major m.latissimus dorsi m.;2 oppeningstrilaterum = triangularquadrilaterum = quadrangular;Medial wall – serratus anterior m.Lateral wall – humarus + muscles.
14 Topography of the shoulder girdle Deltoideopectoral triangle (groove) - aLateral and medial bicipital grooves – b, c
15 Topography of the upper limb 1. Canal of the radial nerve = canalis spiralis = canalis humeromuscularis:between the humerus and triceps muscle2. Fossa of beauty:on the posterior surface of the elbow joint3. Gluter’s triangle and line:connect the epicondyles and apex of the olecranon
16 Topography of the forearm Canal of the ulnar nerve: between the medial epicondyle, proximal ulna and origin of the forearm flexorsCanalis supinatorius: between the supinatorius muscle and radiusPirogov’s space: between the third and fourth layers of the forearm muscles at its distal part.
17 Topography of the forearm and hand Elbow fossa:laterally – brachioradial m.,medially – pronator teres m.,superiorly – brachial m..Antebrachial grooves:Lateral = radial: between brachioradial and flexor carpi radialis mm;Median: between flexor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis mm ;Medial = ulnar: between flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris mm .Anatomical snuff-box
18 Suprapirifom and infrapiriform oppenings The piriform foramen passes through the greater sciatic foramen, above and below which narrow openings remain and transmit the gluteal vessels and nerves.
20 Femoral canal Under normal conditions doesn’t exist. Walls: Lateral – femoral vein;Posterior – deep layer of fascia lata femoris;Anterior – inghinal ligament and superior horn of the crescent-shaped margin of fascia lata.There is a narrow opening in the medial corner of lacuna vasorum – the femoral ring = inletLaterally – femoral vein;Anterior and superior – Poupart’s ligament;Medially – lacunar ligament;Posterior – pectineal ligament.Outlet – chiatus saphenus.Femoral canal
21 Canals of the leg Grouber’s canal = canalis cruropopliteus Extends between the superficial and deep mm. of the leg.It gives a branch – canalis musculoperoneus inferior formed by the middle third of the fibula and the flexor hallucis longus.Canalis musculoperoneus superior – it is placed in the upper third of the leg, between the fibula and peroneus longus muscle.Pirogov’s canal – it is a fascial canal located between two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle.
22 Weak places of the pelvis Obturator canalSuprapirifom foramenInfrapiriform foramenObturator Hernia: This extremelyrare abdominal hernia develops mostlyin women. This hernia protrudes fromthe pelvic cavity through an openingin the pelvic bone (obturator foramen).This will not show any bulge but canact like a bowel obstruction and causenausea and vomiting.
23 Ischiatic and obturator hernias Ischiatic hernias:Suprapiriform hernia;Infrapiriform hernia;Hernia of the lesser piriformforamen
25 Femoral hernias Femoral Hernia: It occurs when the intestine enters the canal carrying the femoral artery into the upperthigh.Femoral hernias are most common in women, especiallythose who are pregnant or obese.