Presentation on theme: "Unit 1: energy and matter in chemical Change"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 1: energy and matter in chemical Change Science 10Unit 1: energy and matter in chemical Change
2Chapter 1: Atoms, Elements, and Compounds 1.1 investigating and working with chemicals
3Modern Chemistry has a recent history dating back to the late 1700s Modern Chemistry has a recent history dating back to the late 1700s. However, chemical properties and uses have been known to different civilizations for thousands of years:bluffton.edu
4North American Aboriginal Peoples Tanning leathersHerbal medicineschinesemedicineadvisor.comuwlax.edu
5Ancient EgyptEmbalming and mummificationminnesota.publicradio.org
6Ancient Rome, Greece, Persia Metal working for armourDyes for art and paintvector-clip-art.comen.wikipedia.orgarchive.worldhistoria.com
7Material Data Safety Sheets (MSDS) Even natural chemicals must be handled properly to ensure safety. Each chemical today has a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) to inform you of its physical properties (melting point, boiling point, odour) and hazards and instructions for handling and storing it safely.
8Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) WHMIS identifies eight classes of hazards:Hazardous Materials are covered by the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) which informs workers about the chemicals they work with in three ways:Controlled products must have informative labels in both English and French on their containersEach controlled product must have an MSDSWorkers must complete an education program that the employer provides
9Classifying Matter Matter Mixture Pure Substance Anything with mass and volumeMay be solid, liquid or gasMixtureCombinations of matter that can be separated by physical meansDo not have definite compositionPure Substance- Matter that has a definite compositionHeterogeneous Mixture (Mechanical Mixture)Different components of the mixture are visibleComposition is variable throughout the mixtureHomogeneous Mixture (Solution)Different components are not visibleComposition is constant throughout the mixtureElement- Cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substancesCompoundTwo or more elements that are chemically combinedCan be separated chemically into simpler substances
13AssignmentCreate a chart that follows the development of the Atomic Model throughout history. You can use the chart below to get started:Model of the AtomWhy Model was ProposedKey Points of the ModelWhy Model was rejected or modifiedDemocritusJohn Dalton’s Billiard BallJ.J. Thomson’s Raisin Bun or Plum-PuddingErnest Rutherford’s ModelNiels Bohr’s Model
14John Dalton’s Atom The Billiard Ball Model All matter is made up of small particles called atomsAtoms cannot be created, destroyed, or divided into smaller particlesAll atoms of the same element are identical in mass and size but different in mass and size to atoms of other elementsCompounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in fixed or definite proportionsChemical reactions change the way atoms are grouped but the atoms do not changethewallmachine.com
15The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) A gas discharge tube contains gas at a low pressure.When electricity is run through it, a ray is formed and light is produced across the tube.
16J.J. Thomson ( )J.J. Thomson determined that the ‘ray’ in the Cathode Ray Tube was made up of a stream of negatively charged particlesHe added charged plates to bend the cathode rays.Based on the radius of the path, he determined that the mass of the particle was much less than that of an atom and that the negatively charged particle was a unique particle – the electron.cnx.org
17The Raisin-Bun or Plum-Pudding Model Since these negatively charged electrons appeared to be present in all samples of matter, Thomson proposed that every atom contained electrons.Since most matter was neutrally charged, there must also be a positively charged part of the atom.Thomson thus proposed a positively charged sphere with many negatively charged electrons present on the surface of the sphere.
18Ernest Rutherford ( )Rutherford conducted his gold foil experiment to further examine the structure of atomsHe directed strongly positive alpha particles towards a thin layer of gold foil.Most of the particles passed straight through, however some were deflected and even bounced back.
19Protons and a NucleusSince most of the particles passed straight through, Rutherford concluded most of the atom is empty spaceSince some of the particles reflected and deflected there must be a dense, massive nucleus to each atom. He determined that this was positively charged, made up of protonsThe negatively charged electrons must orbit around the positively charged nucleus much like planets orbit the sun.
20The Discovery of the Neutron The Hydrogen atom is made up of 1 proton and 1 electronRutherford hypothesized that the next biggest atom, helium, would be 2 protons and 2 electrons. Therefore it should have a mass that is twice that of hydrogen.Helium is 4 times more massive than hydrogen.The neutron was discovered as a neutrally charged particle in the nucleus that has the same mass as a protonen.wikipedia.org
21Niels Bohr ( )According to physical theory, the electrons orbiting the nucleus, should be losing energy in the form of light or radio waves. Losing energy would mean that the electron would come out of orbit and crash into the nucleus. This does not happen.When electrical energy is applied to gases, they do emit light – a specific colour of light for each gas. Each colour corresponds to a specific wavelength of light or a specific energy. Rutherford’s model did not explain this, but Bohr’s did.en.wikipedia.org
22Energy LevelsElectrons in an atom have certain allowed energies that enable the atom to remain stable – energy levels.Electrons can only move from one of these allowed energy levels to another – they cannot exist between them.In order to jump from one level to the next they will absorb a specific amount of energy (jumping up a level), or emit a specific amount of energy (falling back down a level)library.thinkquest.org
23Our Working Model of the Atom… Nucleons (protons and neutrons) make up the nucleus of an atom and electrons fill the space around the nucleus.Subatomic ParticleRelative ChargeSymbolMass (in g)Radius (in m)proton1 +p+1.67 x 10-2410-15neutronn0electron1 -e-9.02 x 10-28Smaller than 10-18
24Nuclear NotationIsotopes – atoms made up of the same number of protons, but different number of neutronsThe atomic number is the number of protons and identifies the atomThe mass number is the total number of protons and neutronsAn atom has a neutral charge so there are equal numbers of protons and electrons in every atomEx.11H mass number is top, atomic number is bottomThere is one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron.The name is hydrogen - 1
26Chapter 2: Names, Formulas, and Properties 2.1 Chemical Names and formulas
27International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Founded in 1919, IUPAC developed a systematic method to name chemicals according to their composition.The systematic name allows us to determine the chemical formula and predict some of its properties.
28Binary CompoundsCompounds that are made up of two elements are called binary compounds.The names of binary compounds almost always end with the suffix “-ide”.commons.wikimedia.org
29Binary Molecular Compounds A binary molecular compound forms when two non-metallic elements come together and form a covalent bond (sharing electrons).Example – dihydrogen monoxide – fatal if inhaledmontessorimuddle.org
30Rules for Naming Binary Molecular Compounds 1. The first element in the name and formula is usually the one that is furthest to the left on the periodic table.2. The suffix “-ide” is attached to the name of the second element.3. Prefixes are used to indicate how many atoms of each type are present in one molecule of the compound.ths.talawanda.net
32Names and Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds A binary ionic compound is composed of ions of one metal element and ions of one non- metal element joined by ionic bonds.elmhurst.edu
33Rules for writing names and formulas: Ex. An ionic compound is made between calcium and fluorine.The name is calcium fluorideThe formula is CaF2The first element in the name and formula is the metal.The second element is the non- metal. The suffix “-ide” is attached to the name.The chemical formula shows the simplest whole number ratio of each type of ion in the compound.*The names of ionic compounds DO NOT contain prefixes*en.wikipedia.org
34Example: Predict the formula of Lithium Oxide Solution:Identify the type of compound – metal & non-metal therefore ionicDetermine the charges on the ions – Li1+ and O2-The compound must be electrically neutral. Therefore it will take two lithium ions to balance with one oxide ion.The formula is Li2O
36Cation ChargesMany of the transition metals (elements in groups 3-12) are able to form more than one type of cation.Ex. Nickel can form Ni2+ or Ni3+Ex. Copper can form Cu+ and Cu2+If you are given the formula of an ionic compound you can determine the charge on the cation.en.wikipedia.org
37Example: Which copper cation, Cu+ or Cu2+, is in CuCl2 Solution:Begin by writing out the two ions involved. Chloride is always a Cl1- and the copper could be either Cu+ or Cu2+The compound must be electrically neutral. If there are two Cl1- ions then the single copper must be a 2+ charge.Therefore the cation is Cu2+
39Naming Cations Using the Stock System When writing the name of an ionic compound that consists of a transition element that could be different charges, the charge on the cation is written in parentheses, as a Roman numeral after the name of the metal.Example: Cu2+ is copper (II)
40Example: Write the chemical formula for copper(II) oxide Solution:The copper cation is named copper(II) and therefore is Cu2+The oxide anion is always O2-The compound must be electrically neutral so the charges must cancel.Therefore, one copper(II) ion will combine with one oxide ion.The formula is CuO
43Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions Many ionic compounds are not binary because they are made up of one or both ions containing more than one type of atoms – polyatomic ions.Polyatomic ions are made of covalent bonds that as a group have a collective positive or negative charge.
44Example: What is the formula of ammonium sulfide?
47Families of Polyatomic Anions Ex. Nitrate, nitrite or sulfate, sulfitePatterns exist:In each family, the anion ending with “-ate” serves as a reference point. The other anions are named according to the number of oxygen atoms in their formula, in relation to the reference anion.Compared with an “__-ate” anion, an “___-ite” anion has one less oxygen in its formula4. Compared with an “____-ate” anion, a “hypo___ite” has two less oxygen atoms in its formulas 5. Compared with an “____-ate” anion, a “per_____ate” has one more oxygen atom in its formula.
49Hydrogen CompoundsHydrogen is a non-metal even though it appears on the left side of the periodic table.Therefore, these hydrogen compounds are molecular but they do not use prefixesCommon examples are on Table 2.5 on pg. 54 in textbook.Homework: pg. 55 #1-6
50Chapter 2: Names, Formulas, and Properties 2.2 Explaining properties of substances
51Bonding and Properties One of the ways Chemists determine features about the structure and bonding of different substances is to observe physical and chemical properties such as:Melting pointBoiling pointElectrical conductivity when dissolved in waterChemicals have different properties in different states so we use subscripts to show the state of a substance – (s) , (l) , (g) , (aq)chemistry11mrstandring.wikispaces.com
52Properties of Ionic Compounds In solid state, ionic compounds have regular crystalline shapes with flat sides.Ionic compounds tend to have high melting points suggesting the bonds between cations and anions is very strong.In the solid state, ionic compounds do not conduct electricity suggesting ions are not free to move.When melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds are electrolytes – they conduct electricity.
53Properties of Molecular Compounds Most molecular compounds have relatively low melting points suggesting that the attractive forces between molecules must be weak.Once melted, molecular compounds can be heated further without decomposing suggesting the covalent bonds within molecules are strong.Molecular substances are non- electrolytes or they do not conduct electricity in any pure state.Some molecular compounds do conduct electricity when dissolved in wateren.wikipedia.org
54Toxic Properties of Substances Every chemical has potential risks that can be harmful.Deciding to use chemicals always involves balancing risks and benefits based on what you know about their properties.Table 2.8 on pg. 60