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Presentation on theme: "Science 10 UNIT 1: ENERGY AND MATTER IN CHEMICAL CHANGE."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter 1: Atoms, Elements, and Compounds 1.1 INVESTIGATING AND WORKING WITH CHEMICALS

3  Modern Chemistry has a recent history dating back to the late 1700s. However, chemical properties and uses have been known to different civilizations for thousands of years:

4 North American Aboriginal Peoples  Tanning leathers  Herbal medicines

5 Ancient Egypt  Embalming and mummification

6 Ancient Rome, Greece, Persia  Metal working for armour  Dyes for art and paint

7 Material Data Safety Sheets (MSDS)  Even natural chemicals must be handled properly to ensure safety. Each chemical today has a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) to inform you of its physical properties (melting point, boiling point, odour) and hazards and instructions for handling and storing it safely.

8 Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) WHMIS identifies eight classes of hazards:  Hazardous Materials are covered by the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) which informs workers about the chemicals they work with in three ways: 1. Controlled products must have informative labels in both English and French on their containers 2. Each controlled product must have an MSDS 3. Workers must complete an education program that the employer provides

9 Classifying Matter Matter - Anything with mass and volume - May be solid, liquid or gas Mixture -Combinations of matter that can be separated by physical means -Do not have definite composition Pure Substance - Matter that has a definite composition Heterogeneous Mixture (Mechanical Mixture) -Different components of the mixture are visible -Composition is variable throughout the mixture Homogeneous Mixture (Solution) -Different components are not visible -Composition is constant throughout the mixture Element - Cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances Compound -Two or more elements that are chemically combined -Can be separated chemically into simpler substances

10 Practice Problems pg. 10 #1-4

11 Chapter 1: Atoms, Elements, and Compounds 1.2 DEVELOPING ATOMIC THEORIES

12 From Ancient Greece to today…

13 Assignment  Create a chart that follows the development of the Atomic Model throughout history. You can use the chart below to get started: Model of the Atom Why Model was Proposed Key Points of the Model Why Model was rejected or modified Democritus John Dalton’s Billiard Ball J.J. Thomson’s Raisin Bun or Plum-Pudding Ernest Rutherford’s Model Niels Bohr’s Model

14 John Dalton’s Atom The Billiard Ball Model 1. All matter is made up of small particles called atoms 2. Atoms cannot be created, destroyed, or divided into smaller particles 3. All atoms of the same element are identical in mass and size but different in mass and size to atoms of other elements 4. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in fixed or definite proportions 5. Chemical reactions change the way atoms are grouped but the atoms do not change

15 The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)  A gas discharge tube contains gas at a low pressure.  When electricity is run through it, a ray is formed and light is produced across the tube.

16 J.J. Thomson ( )  J.J. Thomson determined that the ‘ray’ in the Cathode Ray Tube was made up of a stream of negatively charged particles  He added charged plates to bend the cathode rays.  Based on the radius of the path, he determined that the mass of the particle was much less than that of an atom and that the negatively charged particle was a unique particle – the electron.

17 The Raisin-Bun or Plum-Pudding Model  Since these negatively charged electrons appeared to be present in all samples of matter, Thomson proposed that every atom contained electrons.  Since most matter was neutrally charged, there must also be a positively charged part of the atom.  Thomson thus proposed a positively charged sphere with many negatively charged electrons present on the surface of the sphere.

18 Ernest Rutherford ( )  Rutherford conducted his gold foil experiment to further examine the structure of atoms  He directed strongly positive alpha particles towards a thin layer of gold foil.  Most of the particles passed straight through, however some were deflected and even bounced back.

19 Protons and a Nucleus  Since most of the particles passed straight through, Rutherford concluded most of the atom is empty space  Since some of the particles reflected and deflected there must be a dense, massive nucleus to each atom. He determined that this was positively charged, made up of protons  The negatively charged electrons must orbit around the positively charged nucleus much like planets orbit the sun.

20 The Discovery of the Neutron  The Hydrogen atom is made up of 1 proton and 1 electron  Rutherford hypothesized that the next biggest atom, helium, would be 2 protons and 2 electrons. Therefore it should have a mass that is twice that of hydrogen.  Helium is 4 times more massive than hydrogen.  The neutron was discovered as a neutrally charged particle in the nucleus that has the same mass as a proton

21 Niels Bohr ( )  According to physical theory, the electrons orbiting the nucleus, should be losing energy in the form of light or radio waves. Losing energy would mean that the electron would come out of orbit and crash into the nucleus. This does not happen.  When electrical energy is applied to gases, they do emit light – a specific colour of light for each gas. Each colour corresponds to a specific wavelength of light or a specific energy. Rutherford’s model did not explain this, but Bohr’s did.

22 Energy Levels  Electrons in an atom have certain allowed energies that enable the atom to remain stable – energy levels.  Electrons can only move from one of these allowed energy levels to another – they cannot exist between them.  In order to jump from one level to the next they will absorb a specific amount of energy (jumping up a level), or emit a specific amount of energy (falling back down a level)

23 Our Working Model of the Atom…  Nucleons (protons and neutrons) make up the nucleus of an atom and electrons fill the space around the nucleus. Subatomic Particle Relative Charge SymbolMass (in g)Radius (in m) proton1 +p+p x neutron0n0n x electron1 -e-e x Smaller than

24 Nuclear Notation  Isotopes – atoms made up of the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons  The atomic number is the number of protons and identifies the atom  The mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons  An atom has a neutral charge so there are equal numbers of protons and electrons in every atom  Ex. 1 1 H - mass number is top, atomic number is bottom There is one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. The name is hydrogen - 1

25 Homework: pg. 23 #5-8, pg.24 #2, 4

26 Chapter 2: Names, Formulas, and Properties 2.1 CHEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS

27 International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)  Founded in 1919, IUPAC developed a systematic method to name chemicals according to their composition.  The systematic name allows us to determine the chemical formula and predict some of its properties.

28 Binary Compounds  Compounds that are made up of two elements are called binary compounds.  The names of binary compounds almost always end with the suffix “-ide”.

29 Binary Molecular Compounds  A binary molecular compound forms when two non-metallic elements come together and form a covalent bond (sharing electrons).  Example – dihydrogen monoxide – fatal if inhaled

30 Rules for Naming Binary Molecular Compounds  1. The first element in the name and formula is usually the one that is furthest to the left on the periodic table.  2. The suffix “-ide” is attached to the name of the second element.  3. Prefixes are used to indicate how many atoms of each type are present in one molecule of the compound.

31 Examples:  NO  N 2 O  NO 2  N 2 O 3  N 2 O 4  N 2 O 5  Practice Problems pg. 44 #1-4

32 Names and Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds  A binary ionic compound is composed of ions of one metal element and ions of one non- metal element joined by ionic bonds.

33 Rules for writing names and formulas:  Ex. An ionic compound is made between calcium and fluorine.  The name is calcium fluoride  The formula is CaF 2 1. The first element in the name and formula is the metal. 2. The second element is the non- metal. The suffix “-ide” is attached to the name. 3. The chemical formula shows the simplest whole number ratio of each type of ion in the compound. *The names of ionic compounds DO NOT contain prefixes*

34 Example: Predict the formula of Lithium Oxide Solution: 1. Identify the type of compound – metal & non-metal therefore ionic 2. Determine the charges on the ions – Li 1+ and O The compound must be electrically neutral. Therefore it will take two lithium ions to balance with one oxide ion. 4. The formula is Li 2 O

35 Practice Problems: pg. 45 #5-8

36 Cation Charges  Many of the transition metals (elements in groups 3-12) are able to form more than one type of cation.  Ex. Nickel can form Ni 2+ or Ni 3+  Ex. Copper can form Cu + and Cu 2+  If you are given the formula of an ionic compound you can determine the charge on the cation.

37 Example: Which copper cation, Cu + or Cu 2+, is in CuCl 2 Solution: 1. Begin by writing out the two ions involved. Chloride is always a Cl 1- and the copper could be either Cu + or Cu The compound must be electrically neutral. If there are two Cl 1- ions then the single copper must be a 2+ charge. 3. Therefore the cation is Cu 2+

38 Practice Problems: pg. 46 #9, 10

39 Naming Cations Using the Stock System  When writing the name of an ionic compound that consists of a transition element that could be different charges, the charge on the cation is written in parentheses, as a Roman numeral after the name of the metal.  Example: Cu 2+ is copper (II)

40 Example: Write the chemical formula for copper(II) oxide Solution: 1. The copper cation is named copper(II) and therefore is Cu The oxide anion is always O The compound must be electrically neutral so the charges must cancel. 4. Therefore, one copper(II) ion will combine with one oxide ion. 5. The formula is CuO

41 Practice Problems: pg. 47 #11-12

42 Homework: Investigation 2-A

43 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions  Many ionic compounds are not binary because they are made up of one or both ions containing more than one type of atoms – polyatomic ions.  Polyatomic ions are made of covalent bonds that as a group have a collective positive or negative charge.

44 Example: What is the formula of ammonium sulfide?

45 Example: What is the name of CuCO 3

46 Practice Problems: pg. 52 #13-16

47 Families of Polyatomic Anions  Ex. Nitrate, nitrite or sulfate, sulfite  Patterns exist: 1. In each family, the anion ending with “-ate” serves as a reference point. The other anions are named according to the number of oxygen atoms in their formula, in relation to the reference anion. 2. Compared with an “__-ate” anion, an “___-ite” anion has one less oxygen in its formula 4. Compared with an “____-ate” anion, a “hypo___ite” has two less oxygen atoms in its formulas 5. Compared with an “____-ate” anion, a “per_____ate” has one more oxygen atom in its formula.

48 Practice Problems: pg. 53 #17-19

49 Hydrogen Compounds  Hydrogen is a non-metal even though it appears on the left side of the periodic table.  Therefore, these hydrogen compounds are molecular but they do not use prefixes  Common examples are on Table 2.5 on pg. 54 in textbook.  Homework: pg. 55 #1-6

50 Chapter 2: Names, Formulas, and Properties 2.2 EXPLAINING PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES

51 Bonding and Properties  One of the ways Chemists determine features about the structure and bonding of different substances is to observe physical and chemical properties such as:  Melting point  Boiling point  Electrical conductivity when dissolved in water  Chemicals have different properties in different states so we use subscripts to show the state of a substance – (s), (l), (g), (aq)

52 Properties of Ionic Compounds 1. In solid state, ionic compounds have regular crystalline shapes with flat sides. 2. Ionic compounds tend to have high melting points suggesting the bonds between cations and anions is very strong. 3. In the solid state, ionic compounds do not conduct electricity suggesting ions are not free to move. 4. When melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds are electrolytes – they conduct electricity.

53 Properties of Molecular Compounds 1. Most molecular compounds have relatively low melting points suggesting that the attractive forces between molecules must be weak. 2. Once melted, molecular compounds can be heated further without decomposing suggesting the covalent bonds within molecules are strong. 3. Molecular substances are non- electrolytes or they do not conduct electricity in any pure state. 4. Some molecular compounds do conduct electricity when dissolved in water

54 Toxic Properties of Substances  Every chemical has potential risks that can be harmful.  Deciding to use chemicals always involves balancing risks and benefits based on what you know about their properties.  Table 2.8 on pg. 60

55 Check Your Understanding:  Pg. 62 #1-5

56 Chapter Two Project  Investigation 2-C Reducing the Risk  Pg. 61


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