2Ancient Greek ModelsDemocritus: Believed all matter consisted of extremely small particles that could not be divided.Called these particles “Atomos”- Greek word meaning uncut or indivisible
3Ancient Greek ModelsAristotle: Believed there was no limit to the number of times matter could be dividedBelieved all substances were built from only four substances: earth, air, fire, and water.Remember, this was all just speculation!!!
4Dalton’s Atomic Theory Through experimentation, Dalton discovered that elements in a compound always join the same way.He proposed the theory that all matter is made up of individual particles called atoms, which cannot be divided. His theory is as follows:1. All elements are composed of atoms2. All atoms of the same element have the same mass3. Compounds contain atoms of more than one element4. In a compound atoms of different elements combine the same way.
5A Theory RevisedDalton’s theory explained data from many experiments for a while, but over time scientists found all of Dalton’s ideas about atoms were not correct. They did not discard his theory, but they revised it.John Dalton (born 1766)
6HISTORY OF THE ATOMInvestigations in the 1800’s proved that atoms were in fact divisible.ATOM- smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element.
7Thomson’s Model of the Atom Joseph John Thomson1898Thompson’s experiments provided the first evidence that atoms are made of even smaller particles.Experiments using electric currents were carried out in tubes know as cathode-ray tubes.
8Cathode Rays and Electrons (Thomson’s Experiment) Cathode-Ray ExperimentObserved that cathode rays were deflected by a magnetic field (like wire carrying electric current) which had a negative charge.Rays were also deflected away from a negatively charged object and attracted to the positive plate inside the tube.CONCLUSION: Cathode Rays are negatively charged!Thomson- found evidence that there were negative charges scattered throughout an atom!
9HISTORY OF THE ATOM PLUM PUDDING MODEL 1904 Thompson developed the idea that an atom was made up of “electrons,” which are negatively charged. They are scattered unevenly within an sphere surrounded by a soup of positive charge to balance the electron's charge like plums surrounded bypudding.PLUM PUDDINGMODELNegative charges scattered throughout an atomfilled with a positively charged mass.
10HISTORY OF THE ATOM Ernest Rutherford 1910 Disproved the PLUM PUDDING modelRutherford and his team fired alpha particles at a piece of gold foil which was very thin.This experiment led to the discovery of aNucleus, where all of the atoms positivecharge is concentrated.
11HISTORY OF THE ATOMgold foilhelium nucleihelium nucleiThey found that while most of the helium nuclei passed through the foil, a small number were deflected and, to their surprise, some helium nuclei bounced straight back.
12HISTORY OF THE ATOMRutherford’s new evidence allowed him to propose a more detailed model with a central nucleus that was densely packed.He suggested that the positive charge was all in a central nucleus, holding the electrons in place by electrical attractionHowever, this was not the end of the story.
13HISTORY OF THE ATOM Niels Bohr 1913 Studied under Rutherford at the Victoria University in Manchester.Bohr refined Rutherford's idea by adding that the electrons were in orbits, moving in many directions, like planets orbiting the sun, with each orbit only able to contain a set number of electrons.
15Bohr’s ModelEach electron in an atom has a specific amount of energy, and an atom can gain or lose energy.The possible energies that electrons in an atom can have are called energy levels.An electron cannot exist between energy levels.An electron in an atom can move from one energy level to another when the atom gains or loses energy.**Bohr was correct in assigning energy levels to electrons, but incorrect in assuming that electrons moved like planets in a solar system. We will discuss this further later on.
16HELIUM ATOM (according to Bohr’s Model) ShellprotonN+nucleus-+N-neutronelectronProton has positive charge equal in magnitude of negative charge of electron= neutral atoms