6IonsIons- an atom with either a positive (cation) or a negative (anion) charge caused by the addition or removal of an electron.Why do we add or remove electrons?
7Bonding ELECTRONS are the reason we have compounds! All bonding is caused by either the transfer or sharing of electrons!When electrons are shared it is _________ bonding.When electrons are transferred it is _________ bonding.
8All elements want to be stable Do you like being unstable?Think about standing on the side of a cliff….with a very strong wind. Would you be happy?How do elements gain stability?
9The octet ruleWhat is a valence electron?What is the octet rule?
10The octet ruleCompounds are most stable when they have eight (8) valence electrons.Compounds will gain or give up electrons based on how easy it is.Ionization energy- the amount of energy required to remove an electron.
11Octet ruleIn your notebook explain how ionization energy changes across the periodic table.You have 3 minutes.Use full sentences!!!!!!! (I’m serious…I will be checking!)
13Homework 12/2/13 What ionic charge will Magnesium have? When is an atom least likely to react?Define ion, ionization energy, valence electron, octet rule, covalent bond, and ionic bond.*Bonus* how many protons, neutrons, and electrons does Bromine have?
14Do NowYou need to pick up a white board, dry erase marker, and eraser from the front left corner of the room.You must be seated with these materials by the time the bell rings or points will be deducted from your grade today.
15Do Now Continued Draw a water molecule. Chemical formula H2O. Is water a compound, mixture, or element?How many elements are in a molecule of water?What’s an ionic bond, covalent bond?
16Lets break it down Many water molecules together Pure substance not a mixture
17The word molecule is ambiguous. What does ambiguous mean??? You can have a molecule of an elementYou can have a molecule of a compoundYou can have a molecule of a substanceThe word molecule does NOT always mean compound or element.Ambiguous= more than one meaning.Your book defines molecule as a neutral group of atoms joined together by one or more covalent bonds.
18How can two atoms together be an element? Tricky right?There are elemental forms of all elements.Air is made mostly of what element?
19STABILITY rules the UNIVERSE! Confused?Just Remember!STABILITY rules the UNIVERSE!All chemical bonding is done to make an element stable.
20You can make one covalent bond for every valence electron you have. Covalent bondingWhat is a covalent bond?You can make one covalent bond for every valence electron you have.
21Covalent bondCovalent bonds are expressed as lines. Unlike ionic expressed as charges.C O H
22Non-polar covalentThe types of atoms in a molecule and its shape affect its polarity.What do you see when you look in a mirror?
23Non-polar covalentFor non-polar elements you look for equality in the molecule.
24Polar covalent To be polar you should look for unequal sharing. The unequal sharing will cause some charges on moleculesBUT due to the fact there is no electron transfer it is still a covalent bond.
26Polarity and strength What is the strongest type of bond? Polar molecules will attract to one another through intermolecular forces. Which makes polar substances stronger than non-polar.Intermolecular forces
31Today’s Objective SWBAT name common mono-atomic and polyatomic ions. Essential Questions: how do chemical compounds get their name?
32Review..Ionic Bond vs. Covalent BondIonic bond is an electron transferCovalent Bond is electron sharingWhich is stronger? Why?
33Let’s Check…How many elements are in the following compound?Na2CO3
34Naming compounds There are so many ways to combine atoms. We must give compounds names.To do this there are rules….many many rulesFortunately this is not organic chemistry (you’ll get that in college)Fewer rules to follow for physical science (yay!)But, you will need to memorize some rules.
35A cation is an ion with a positive charge Hold up…ReviewWhat is a Cation? What is an Anion?A cation is an ion with a positive chargeAn ion an with a negative charge
45That naming system works for mono-atomic ions To complicate things we have polyatomic ions.What are they?Multiple atoms in an ion.Multiple atoms with a chargeExample: NH4+ ammoniumUnfortunately, these are ion names you must memorize.
46Copy these in your notes Put your pencil down when down and wait silently
47Trends?Any trends you see?Elements ending in –ate?
48Molecular compoundsMolecular compounds are named based on the number of atoms in a molecule.
49What is the common name for CO2? What about CO3?Carbon Trioxide
50Practice 4: Molecular Compounds In order to name you just add the prefix to the elemental name (with –ide).1. CO2. PO5
51You Try3. PO34. SO4 (careful with this one)5. N2O4
52Final ReviewName the following compounds:1. NaCl2. NaO3. H2O4. LiF
53Exit Ticket 1. What are anions? What are cations? 2. What is the name of CaCl2?3. What is the name of NaCl?4. What is the name of