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Cartoon courtesy of NearingZero.net IonsIons  Cation: A positive ion  Mg 2+, NH 4 +  Anion: A negative ion  Cl , SO 4 2   Ionic Bonding: Force.

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Presentation on theme: "Cartoon courtesy of NearingZero.net IonsIons  Cation: A positive ion  Mg 2+, NH 4 +  Anion: A negative ion  Cl , SO 4 2   Ionic Bonding: Force."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Cartoon courtesy of NearingZero.net

3 IonsIons  Cation: A positive ion  Mg 2+, NH 4 +  Anion: A negative ion  Cl , SO 4 2   Ionic Bonding: Force of attraction between oppositely charged ions.

4 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 1: Lose 1 electron to form 1+ ions H+H+H+H+ Li + Na + K+K+K+K+

5 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 2: Loses 2 electrons to form 2+ ions Be 2+ Mg 2+ Ca 2+ Sr 2+ Ba 2+

6 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 13: (III A) Loses 3 e- to form (III A) Loses 3 e- to form 3+ ions B 3+ Al 3+ Ga 3+

7 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 14: (IV A) Lose 4e- or gain (IV A) Lose 4 e- or gain 4 electrons? Neither! Group 14 (IVA) elements rarely form ions.

8 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 15: (V A) Gains 3 e- to form (V A) Gains 3 e- to form 3- ions N 3- P 3- As 3- Nitride Phosphide Arsenide

9 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 16: (VI A) Gains 2 e- to form (VI A) Gains 2 e- to form 2- ions O 2- S 2- Se 2- Oxide Sulfide Selenide

10 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 17: (VII A) Gains 1 e- to form (VII A) Gains 1 e- to form 1- ions F 1- Cl 1- Br 1- Fluoride Chloride Bromide I 1- Iodide

11 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 18: (VIII A) Stable Noble gases do not form ions! (VIII A) Stable Noble gases do not form ions!

12 Predicting Ionic Charges Groups 3 - 12: Many transition elements Many transition elements have more than one possible oxidation state. have more than one possible oxidation state. Iron(II) = Fe 2+ Iron(III) = Fe 3+

13 Predicting Ionic Charges Groups 3 - 12: Some transition elements Some transition elements have only one possible oxidation state. have only one possible oxidation state. Zinc = Zn 2+ Silver = Ag +

14 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Barium nitrate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Ba 2+ NO 3 - 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! ( ) 2

15 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Ammonium sulfate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! NH 4 + SO 4 2- 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! ( ) 2

16 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Iron(III) chloride 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Fe 3+ Cl - 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! 3

17 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Aluminum sulfide 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Al 3+ S 2- 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! 23

18 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Magnesium carbonate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Mg 2+ CO 3 2- 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. They are balanced!

19 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Zinc hydroxide 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Zn 2+ OH - 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! ( ) 2

20 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Aluminum phosphate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Al 3+ PO 4 3- 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. They ARE balanced!

21 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds 1. Cation first, then anion1. Cation first, then anion 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element2. Monatomic cation = name of the element Ca 2+ = calcium ionCa 2+ = calcium ion 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide Cl  = chlorideCl  = chloride CaCl 2 = calcium chlorideCaCl 2 = calcium chloride

22 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds (continued) - some metal forms more than one cation- some metal forms more than one cation -use Roman numeral in name-use Roman numeral in name PbCl 2PbCl 2 Pb 2+ is cationPb 2+ is cation PbCl 2 = lead(II) chloridePbCl 2 = lead(II) chloride Metals with multiple oxidation states

23 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds - Compounds between two nonmetals- Compounds between two nonmetals -First element in the formula is named first.-First element in the formula is named first. -Second element is named as if it were an anion.-Second element is named as if it were an anion. -Use prefixes-Use prefixes -Only use mono on second element --Only use mono on second element - P 2 O 5 = CO 2 = CO = N 2 O = diphosphorus pentoxide carbon dioxide carbon monoxide dinitrogen monoxide


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